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Area - comparative: land area about 16 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: the land boundaries in the world total 251,480.24 km
(not counting shared boundaries twice)

Coastline: 356,000 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm claimed by most, but can vary
continental shelf: 200-m depth claimed by most or to depth of
exploitation; others claim 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm claimed by most, but can vary
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm claimed by most, but can vary
territorial sea: 12 nm claimed by most, but can vary
note: boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many
countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200
nm; 43 nations and other areas that are landlocked include
Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic,
Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San
Marino, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West
Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather
narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to
subtropical climates

Terrain: the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in
the Pacific Ocean

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources: the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral
resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction
of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water
quality (especially in Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and China)
pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only
beginning to address

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 26%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,481,250 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical
cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis,
volcanic eruptions)

Environment - current issues: large areas subject to overpopulation,
industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic
substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation,
desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion,


Population: 6,080,671,215 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29.92% (male 932,832,913; female 885,970,165)
15-64 years: 63.17% (male 1,942,402,264; female 1,898,479,062)
65 years and over: 6.91% (male 184,072,470; female 235,017,660) (2000

Population growth rate: 1.3% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64 years
male: 62 years
female: 65 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)


Data code: none; there is no FIPS 10-4 country code for the World, so
the Factbook uses the "W" data code from DIAM 65-18 "Geopolitical Data
Elements and Related Features," Data Standard No. 3, March 1984,
published by the Defense Intelligence Agency; see the Cross-Reference
List of Country Data Codes appendix

Administrative divisions: 267 nations, dependent areas, other, and
miscellaneous entries

Legal system: all members of the UN (excluding Yugoslavia) plus
Switzerland are parties to the statute that established the
International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court


Economy - overview: Growth in global output (gross world product, GWP)
rose to 3% in 1999 from 2% in 1998 despite continued recession in
Japan, severe financial difficulties in other East Asian countries,
and widespread dislocations in several transition economies, notably
Russia. The US economy continued its remarkable sustained prosperity,
growing at 4.1% in 1999, and accounted for 23% of GWP. Western
Europe's economies grew at roughly 2%, not enough to cut deeply into
the region's high unemployment; the EU economies produced 20% of GWP.
China, the second largest economy in the world, continued its strong
growth and accounted for 12% of GWP. Japan grew at only 0.3% in 1999;
its share in GWP is 7%. As usual, the 15 successor nations of the USSR
and the other old Warsaw Pact nations experienced widely different
rates of growth. The developing nations varied widely in their growth
results, with many countries facing population increases that eat up
gains in output. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock
economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over
international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology.
Internally, the central government often finds its control over
resources slipping as separatist regional movements - typically based
on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in many of the successor states of
the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, and in
Canada. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political
problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to
increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The
addition of 80 million people each year to an already overcrowded
globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification,
underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal
problems and priorities, the industrialized countries devote
insufficient resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of
the world, which, at least from the economic point of view, are
becoming further marginalized. Continued financial difficulties in
East Asia, Russia, and many African nations cast a shadow over
short-term global economic prospects. The introduction of the euro as
the common currency of much of Western Europe in January 1999, while
strengthening prospects for an integrated economic powerhouse, poses
serious economic risks because of varying levels of income and
cultural and political differences among the participating nations.
(For specific economic developments in each country of the world in
1999, see the individual country entries.)

GDP: GWP (gross world product) - purchasing power parity - $40.7
trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): all countries 25%; developed
countries 1% to 3% typically; developing countries 5% to 60% typically
(1999 est.)
note: national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from
stable prices in Japan to hyperinflation in a number of Third World

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agricultue NA%, industry NA%, services

Unemployment rate: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in
many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically
4%-12% unemployment (1999 est.)

Industries: dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in
computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical
equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a
small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly
adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development
of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating
already grim environmental problems

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 12,342.7 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: 12,342.7 billion kWh (1994)

Exports: $5.6 trillion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural
goods and services

Exports - partners: in value, about 75% of exports from the developed

Imports: $5.6 trillion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural
goods and services

Imports - partners: in value, about 75% of imports by the developed

Debt - external: $2 trillion for less developed countries (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: traditional worldwide foreign aid $50
billion (1997 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13,119 (1999)


total: 1,201,337 km includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km of
electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in the
Far East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and 4,160 km
in North America; note - fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr
attained by France's Societe Nationale des Chemins-de-Fer Francais
(SNCF) Le Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) - Atlantique line
broad gauge: 251,153 km
standard gauge: 710,754 km
narrow gauge: 239,430 km

total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, Mina' al
Ahmadi (Kuwait), New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama


Military expenditures - dollar figure: aggregate real expenditure on
arms worldwide in 1999 remained at approximately the 1998 level, about
three-quarters of a trillion dollars (1999 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 2% of gross world
product (1999 est.)




Background: North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in
1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the
southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what
became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted
a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of
Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of
hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified
as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in
1994 was quickly subdued.


Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and
Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 48 00 E

Map references: Middle East

total: 527,970 sq km
land: 527,970 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or
North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
(PDRY or South Yemen)

Area - comparative: slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:
total: 1,746 km
border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Coastline: 1,906 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm in the North; 24 nm in the South
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in
western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot,
dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged
mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the
desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits
of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 30%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 63% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sandstorms and dust storms in summer

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait
linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active
shipping lanes


Population: 17,479,206 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 4,220,621; female 4,076,902)
15-64 years: 49% (male 4,416,139; female 4,224,474)
65 years and over: 4% (male 275,590; female 265,480) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.36% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 43.44 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.86 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.83 years
male: 58.1 years
female: 61.64 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.05 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni

Ethnic groups: predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians,

Religions: Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small
numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Languages: Arabic

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 53%
female: 26% (1990 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman

Data code: YM

Government type: republic

Capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 17 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan, Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah,
Al Mahwit, 'Ataq, Dhamar, Hadhramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib,
Sa'dah, San'a', Ta'izz
note: there may be three new governorates - the capital city of Sanaa,
Amran, Dala'a

Independence: 22 May 1990, Republic of Yemen was established with the
merger of the Yemen Arab Republic and
the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen
(Aden) or South Yemen]; previously North Yemen had become independent
on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had
become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)

Constitution: 16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994

Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law,
and local tribal customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May
1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the
merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab
Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Abd al-Karim Ali al-IRYANI
(since NA April 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice
of the prime minister
elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year
term; election last held 23 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2004);
vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy
prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of
vote: Ali Abdallah SALIH 96.3%, Najeeb Qahtan AL-SHAABI 3.7%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (301 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 April 1997 (next to be held NA April 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC
189, Islah 52, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist
Baath Party 2, independents 54, election pending 1
note: in May 1997, the president created a consultative council,
sometimes referred to as the upper house of Parliament; its 59 members
are all appointed by the president

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are over 12 political parties
active in Yemen, some of the more prominent are: General People's
Congress or GPC ; Islamic Reform
Grouping or Islah ; National Arab
Socialist Baath Party ; Nasserite Unionist Party
; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih
note: President SALIH's General People's Congress or GPC won a
landslide victory in the April 1997 legislative election and no longer
governs in coalition with Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR's
Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah - the two parties had been in
coalition since the end of the civil war in 1994; the YSP, a loyal
opposition party, boycotted the April 1997 legislative election

International organization participation: ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahhab Abdallah al-HAJRI
chancery: Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: (202) 965-4760
FAX: (202) 337-2017

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara K. BODINE
embassy: Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: (1) 238842
FAX: (1) 251563

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black; similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and
of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag
of Egypt which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band


Economy - overview: Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab
world, reported strong growth in the mid-1990s with the onset of oil
production, but was harmed by low oil prices in 1998. Yemen has
embarked on an IMF-supported structural adjustment program designed to
modernize and streamline the economy, which has led to foreign debt
relief and restructuring. Aided by higher oil prices in 1999, Yemen
worked to maintain tight control over spending and implement
additional components of the IMF program. The high population growth
rate of 3.4% and internal political dissension complicate the
government's task.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $750 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 42%
services: 38% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 30.8% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: most people are employed in agriculture
and herding or as expatriate laborers; services, construction,
industry, and commerce account for less than one-half of the labor

Unemployment rate: 30% (1995 est.)

revenues: $1.8 billion
expenditures: $1.95 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale
production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing;
handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 2.24 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.083 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly
narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton; dairy products, poultry, beef; fish

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil, cotton, coffee, dried and salted

Exports - partners: China 31%, South Korea 25%, Thailand 22%, Japan 5%
(1998 est.)

Imports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and equipment,
manufactured goods

Imports - partners: US 9%, UAE 8%, France 8%, Italy 7%, Saudi Arabia
7% (1998 est.)

Debt - external: $4.5 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $176.1 million (1995)

Currency: Yemeni rial (YER) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Yemeni rials (YER) per US$1 - 159.70 (January 2000),
160.700 (first quarter 1999), 135.882 (1998), 129.281 (1997), 94.157
(1996), 40.839 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 188,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,250 (1995)

Telephone system: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to
create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, and
tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean
and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2
Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 1.05 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (plus several low-power repeaters)

Televisions: 470,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)


Railways: 0 km

total: 67,000 km
paved: 7,700 km
unpaved: 59,300 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km

Ports and harbors: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla, As Salif, Mocha,

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,059 GRT/18,563 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 50 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 37
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces,
paramilitary (includes Police)

Military manpower - military age: 14 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,935,924 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,209,412 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 234,375 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $414 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 7.6% (FY99)

@Yemen:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a large section of boundary with Saudi
Arabia is not defined




Background: The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the
South Africa Company from 1891 until takeover by the UK in 1923.
During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and
immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964.
In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged
drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to
one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment
of opposition parties.


Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

total: 752,614 sq km
land: 740,724 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Texas

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