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Movement of Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee
for European Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed
Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in November 1980;
current name adopted 14 November 1989
address - 17 route des Morillons, CP 71, CH-1211 Geneva 19,
Switzerland
telephone - [41] (22) 717 91 11
FAX - [41] (22) 798 61 50
established - 5 December 1951
aim - to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration
members - (69) Albania, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Liberia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Mali, Morocco, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Senegal, Slovakia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia
observers - (47) Afghanistan, Algeria, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Estonia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana,
Guinea, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Madagascar, Malta, Mexico, Moldova,
Mozambique, Namibia, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino,
Sao Tome and Principe, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Ukraine, UK, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
address - CP 56, 1 Rue de Varembe, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
telephone - [41] (22) 749 01 11
FAX - [41] (22) 733 34 30
established - NA February 1947
aim - to promote the development of international standards with a
view to facilitating international exchange of goods and services and
to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific,
technological and economic activity
members - (88 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria,
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile,
China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia and Montenegro, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Zimbabwe
correspondent members - (35) Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia,
Brunei, Cote d'Ivoire, El Salvador, Estonia, Georgia, Guatemala,
Guinea, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Malta, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal,
Nicaragua, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Qatar, Seychelles,
Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE
subscriber members - (9) Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Grenada, Guyana, Namibia, Saint Lucia
_________________________________________________________________

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
address - International Conference of the Red Cross, 19 Avenue de la
Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland
telephone - [41] (22) 734 60 01
FAX - [41] (22) 733 20 57
established - NA 1928
aim - to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International
Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and International
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS; formerly
League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or LORCS) in peacetime
National Societies - (175 countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,
Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea,
South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
address - Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
telephone - [41] (22) 730 6039
FAX - [41] (22) 733 7256, 730 5939
established - 17 May 1865 set up as the International Telegraph Union;
9 December 1932 adopted present name
effective - 1 January 1934
affiliated with the UN - 15 November 1947
aim - to deal with world telecommunications issues; a UN specialized
agency
members - (188) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,
Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of
Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
_________________________________________________________________

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat)
address - Intelsat, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC
20008-3098, US
telephone - [1] (202) 944 7500
FAX - [1] (202) 944 7890
established - 20 August 1964 set up as the Telecommunications
Satellite Consortium; 12 February 1973 adopted present name
aim - to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications
satellite system
members - (143) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
nonsignatory users - (42) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus,
Belize, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cook Islands, Cuba, Djibouti,
Eritrea, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Kiribati, North Korea,
Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Moldova, Nauru,
Niue, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome
and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, Suriname, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu
_________________________________________________________________

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
address - P. O. Box 5925, Jeddah 21432, Saudi Arabia
telephone - [966] (2) 6361400
FAX - [966] (2) 6366871
established - 15 December 1973 by declaration of intent
effective - 12 August 1974
aim - to promote Islamic economic aid and social development
members - (51 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,
Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei,
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization
_________________________________________________________________

Latin American Economic System (LAES)
note - also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)
address - SELA, Avenida Francisco de Miranda, Torre Europa, Piso 4,
Chacaito, Apartado de Correos 17035, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela
telephone - [58] (2) 905 5111
FAX - [58] (2) 951 6953, 951 7246
established - 17 October 1975
aim - to promote economic and social development through regional
cooperation
members - (28) Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia,
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad
and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela
observers - (21) Andean Promotion Corporation, China, Costa Rica,
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, EEC, Guatemala, Honduras, IADB,
Inter-American Institute for Agricultural Cooperation, Italy,
Nicaragua, OAS, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland,
UN Development Program, UN Economic Commission for Latin America and
the Caribbean
_________________________________________________________________

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
note - also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)
address - Calle Cebollati 1461, Casilla de Correo 577, 11000
Montevideo, Uruguay
telephone - [598] (2) 400 11 21, 409 59 15
FAX - [598] (2) 409 06 49
established - 12 August 1980
effective - 18 March 1981
aim - to promote freer regional trade
members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba,
Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
observers - (21) China, Commission of the European Communities,
Corporacion Andina de Fomento, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank,
Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Italy, Latin
America Economic System, Nicaragua, Organization of American States,
Panama, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United Nations
Development Program, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean
_________________________________________________________________

League of Arab States (LAS)
see Arab League (AL)
_________________________________________________________________

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)
see International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
(IFRCS)
_________________________________________________________________

least developed countries (LLDCs)

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially
identified by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant
economic growth, per capita GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low
literacy rates; also known as the undeveloped countries; the 42 LLDCs
are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso,
Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros,
Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali,
Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and
Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu,
Uganda, Vanuatu, Yemen
_________________________________________________________________

less developed countries (LDCs)
the bottom group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former
USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries
(LDCs); mainly countries and dependent areas with low levels of
output, living standards, and technology; per capita GDPs are
generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group
also includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes,
areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the
advanced developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons
(Four Tigers), least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income
countries, middle-income countries, newly industrializing economies
(NIEs), the South, Third World, underdeveloped countries, undeveloped
countries; the 172 LDCs are: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa,
Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French
Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana,
Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North
Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man,
Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte,
Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New
Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern
Mariana Islands, Oman, Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar,
Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu,
UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands,
Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe;
note - similar to the new International Monetary Fund (IMF) term
"developing countries" which adds Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and
Turkey but omits in its recently published statistics American Samoa,
Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Christmas
Island, Cocos Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea, Falkland Islands,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland,
Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey, Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Isle
of Man, Martinique, Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue,
Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands,
Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and Miquelon,
Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin Islands,
Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara
_________________________________________________________________

London Suppliers Group
see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
_________________________________________________________________

low-income countries
another term for those less developed countries with below-average per
capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur)
see Southern Cone Common Market
_________________________________________________________________

middle-income countries
another term for those less developed countries with above-average per
capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)
_________________________________________________________________

Near Abroad
Russian term for the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in
which 25 million ethnic Russians live and in which Moscow has
expressed a strong national security interest; the 14 countries are
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Ukraine, Uzbekistan
_________________________________________________________________

newly industrializing countries (NICs)
former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly
industrializing economies (NIEs)
_________________________________________________________________

newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has
experienced particularly rapid industrialization of their economies;
formerly known as the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also
known as advanced developing countries; usually includes the Four
Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan), and Brazil
_________________________________________________________________

Nonaligned Movement (NAM)
address - Permanent Representative of the Republic of South Africa to
the United Nations, 333 East 38th Street, 9th floor, New York, NY
10016, US
telephone - [1] (212) 213 5583
FAX - [1] (212) 692 2498
established - 1-6 September 1961
aim - to establish political and military cooperation apart from the
traditional East or West blocs
members - (113 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei,
Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon,
The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines,
Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan,
Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization
observers - (16) Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil,
China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Ukraine, Uruguay
guests - (28) Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
_________________________________________________________________

Nordic Council (NC)
address - Store Strandstraede 18, PB 3043, DK-1021 Kobenhavn K,
Denmark
telephone - [45] 33 96 04 00
FAX - [45] 33 11 18 70
established - 16 March 1952
effective - 12 February 1953
aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental
cooperation
members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland
(including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden
observers - (3) the Sami (Lapp) local parliaments of Finland, Norway,
and Sweden
_________________________________________________________________

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
address - Fabianinkatu 34, P. O. Box 249, FIN-00171 Helsinki, Finland
telephone - [358] (0) 18001
FAX - [358] (0) 1800210
established - 4 December 1975
effective - 1 June 1976
aim - to promote economic cooperation and development
members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland
(including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden
_________________________________________________________________

North
a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located
in the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of
the South; see developed countries (DCs)
_________________________________________________________________

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC)
see Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
_________________________________________________________________

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
address - B-1110 Brussels, Belgium
telephone - [32] (2) 707 4111
FAX - [32] (2) 707 4579
established - 4 April 1949
aim - to promote mutual defense and cooperation
members - (19) Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France,



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