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Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Bermuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Introduction

Background: Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907;
three years later a treaty was signed whereby the country became a
British protectorate. Independence was attained in 1949, with India
subsequently guiding foreign relations and supplying aid.

@Bhutan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 47,000 sq km
land: 47,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,075 km
border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m
highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the
source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder
Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable
water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

Population: 2,005,222
note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 417,627; female 387,927)
15-64 years: 56% (male 576,533; female 544,076)
65 years and over: 4% (male 40,081; female 38,978) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.19% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 36.22 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.32 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 110.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.4 years
male: 52.79 years
female: 51.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant
tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.2%
male: 56.2%
female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

People - note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of
approximately 96,500 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
camps

@Bhutan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen WANGCHUCK
became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights
note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the
National Assembly; on 7 July 1998, a Royal edict was ratified giving
the National Assembly additional powers

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
head of government: Foreign Minister Jigme Yoeser THINLEY (since NA
June 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
five-year terms
note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members
nominated by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in
July 1998 give the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch
with two-thirds vote

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150
seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious
bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government
and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: NA

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the monarch; High
Court, judges appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; ethnic
Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign;
Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a
Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th
Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese
mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no
formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange;
centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon
facing away from the hoist side

@Bhutan:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least
developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the
main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of
GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal
husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building
of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy
is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary
links. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most
production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects,
such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key
resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in
expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare.
Model education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are
underway with support from multilateral development organizations.
Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to
protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed
controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing,
trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,060 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 38%
industry: 37%
services: 25% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1998)

Labor force: NA
note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry
and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $146 million
expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)
note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's
budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.788 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 0.39%
hydro: 99.61%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 345 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 1.339 billion kWh
note: exports electricity to India (1998)

Electricity - imports: 21 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
dairy products, eggs

Exports: $111 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement,
fruit, electricity (to India), precious stones, spices

Exports - partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports: $136 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and
parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice

Imports - partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt - external: $120 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $73.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is
also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 43.552 (January 2000), 43.055
(1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996), 32.427 (1995);
note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones
in use
international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Bhutan:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 3,285 km
paved: 1,994 km
unpaved: 1,291 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Bhutan:Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia, Royal
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 491,427 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 262,316 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 20,374 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Bhutan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: over approximately 96,500 Bhutanese refugees
in Nepal

______________________________________________________________________



BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Introduction

Background: Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR,
broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history
has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups.
Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s,
but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty,
social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting
foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, continuing
the privatization program, and waging an anti-corruption campaign.

@Bolivia:Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,098,580 sq km
land: 1,084,390 sq km
water: 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,743 km
border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 53%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are
contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor
cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture);
desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water
supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

Population: 8,152,620 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39.11% (male 1,624,404; female 1,564,057)
15-64 years: 56.42% (male 2,247,013; female 2,352,824)
65 years and over: 4.47% (male 164,473; female 199,849) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.83% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 28.15 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.36 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.7 years
male: 61.19 years
female: 66.34 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.66 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
Amerindian ancestry) 30%, white 15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 90.5%
female: 76% (1995 est.)

@Bolivia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Republica de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia

Data code: BL

Government type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997);
Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August
1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August
1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next
to be held June 2002)
election results: Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of
vote - Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%, Juan
Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA (CONDEPA)
17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Hugo BANZER
Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after
forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR and PDC

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are
directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 1
June 1997 (next to be held June 2002)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADN 32, MNR
26, MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed for
10-year terms by National Congress

Political parties and leaders: Alternative of Democratic Socialism or
ASD ; April 9 Revolutionary Vanguard or VR-9
; Bolivian Communist Party or PCB ;
Bolivian Renovating Alliance or ARBOL [Marcelo FERNANDEZ, Hugo
VILLEGAS]; Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB ; Christian
Democrat or PDC ; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS
; Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios
LOZA Alvarado]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL ; Front
of Katarista Unity or FULKA ; Front of National
Salvation or FSN ; Katarismo National Unity or
KND ; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR
; Movement Towards Socialism-Popular Instrument for
Solidarity with the People or MAS-IPSP ;
Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN ; Nationalist
Katarista Movement or MKN ; Nationalist Revolutionary
Movement or MNR ; New Republican Force or
NFR ; New Youth Force ;
Patriotic Axis of Convergence or EJE-P ; Popular
Patriotic Movement or MPP ; Revolutionary Front of the
Left or FRI ; Socialist Party One or PS-1 ;
Solidarity and Democracy or SYD ; Tupac Katari
Revolutionary Liberation Movement or MRTK-L [Victor Hugo CARDENAS
Conde]; United Left or IU ; Unity and Progress Movement
or MUP
note: political blocs include: left - MBL, EJE-P, VR-9, ASD, FRI, PCB,
IU, FSN, PS-1, FSB, and MAS; center left - MIR, PDC, and New Youth
Force; center - MNR; center right - ADN and NFR; populist - UCS,
CONDEPA, SYD, MUP, and MPP; evangelical - ARBOL; indigenous - MRTK-L,
MKN, and KND

Political pressure groups and leaders: Cocalero Group

International organization participation: CAN, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate),
MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene FERNANDEZ del Granado
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 483-4410
FAX: (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone: (2) 430251
FAX: (2) 433900

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar
to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star
centered in the yellow band

@Bolivia:Economy

Economy - overview: Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least
developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress
toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under
President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-1997) included the signing of a free
trade agreement with Mexico and the Southern Cone Common Market
(Mercosur) as well as the privatization of the state airline,
telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company.
His successor, Hugo BANZER Suarez has tried to further improve the
country's investment climate with an anticorruption campaign. Growth
slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which
limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the
fallout from the Asian financial crisis. Growth should rebound to
perhaps 4% in 2000 given reasonably favorable world commodity prices.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 35.5%
services: 47.9% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 11.4% (1997) with widespread underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $2.7 billion
expenditures: $2.7 billion including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.576 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 42.43%
hydro: 55.75%
nuclear: 0%
other: 1.82% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.412 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 4 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 20 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn,
sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood

Exports - partners: UK 16%, US 12%, Peru 11%, Argentina 10%, Colombia
7% (1998)

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, raw materials and
semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food

Imports - partners: US 32%, Japan 24%, Brazil 12%, Argentina 12%,
Chile 7%, Peru 4%, Germany 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $5.7 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $588 million (1997)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 6.0065 (January 2000),
5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997), 5.0746 (1996), 4.8003
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bolivia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 368,874 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,229 (1995)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most
telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities
domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)



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