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Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios: 5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 48 (1997)

Televisions: 900,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (1999)


total: 3,691 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
electrified) (1995)

total: 52,216 km
paved: 2,872 km (including 27 km of expressways)
unpaved: 49,344 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in
the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 116,373 GRT/182,283 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 17, chemical tanker 3, container 1,
petroleum tanker 6, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 1,109 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,096
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 67
914 to 1,523 m: 219
under 914 m: 807 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,949,267 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,269,228 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 86,863 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY99)

@Bolivia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru
and Colombia) with an estimated 21,800 hectares under cultivation in
1999, a 45% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1998 levels;
intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through
Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other
international drug markets; alternative crop program aims to reduce
illicit coca cultivation



@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Introduction

Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in
October of 1991, was followed by a referendum for independence from
the former Yugoslavia in February of 1992. The Bosnian Serbs -
supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance
aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining
Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's
Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three
to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton,
Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a
halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement
was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement divides
Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska. In
1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000
troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects
of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed
hostilities. SFOR remains in place, with troop levels to be reduced to
about 19,000 by spring 2000.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

total: 51,129 sq km
land: 51,129 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants;
sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties,
water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of the
1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders,
the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about
51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska
(about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is
contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic
Croat majority

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:People

Population: 3,835,777
note: all data dealing with population are subject to considerable
error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 401,554; female 379,303)
15-64 years: 71% (male 1,403,618; female 1,323,307)
65 years and over: 9% (male 138,173; female 189,822) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.92 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.87 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 25.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.49 years
male: 68.78 years
female: 74.38 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%, other
2.5% (1991)
note: Bosniak has replaced muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant
4%, other 10%

Languages: Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Data code: BK

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative
divisions - the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
Srpska; note - Brcko in northeastern Bosnia is a self-governing
administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
it is not part of either the Federation or Republika Srpska

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Bosnia and Herzegovina - BiH National Day, 25

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included
a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (chairman
since 14 February 2000, presidency member since 14 March 1996 -
Bosniak); other members of the three-member rotating (every 8 months)
presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and Ante
JELAVIC (since NA September 1998 - Croat)
head of government: vacant; note - in February 2000, the Supreme Court
ruled that the structure of the Council of Ministers was
unconstitutional; a new structure is being negotiated
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ejup
GANIC (since 28 December 1999; Vice President Ivo ANDRIC-LUZANIC
(since 28 December 1999); note - president and vice president rotate
every year; President of the Republika Srpska: vacant since Nikola
POPLASEN was removed by the Office of the High Representative on 5
March 1999 (see Government note)
elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the
member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was
the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election last held
12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002); the
cochairmen of the Council of Ministers are appointed by the presidency
election results: percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb
vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first 8
months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in
the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the
highest number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a
second term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as
Chairman of the Presidency

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina (42
seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected by popular
vote to serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Vijece
Gradanstvo (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by
the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the
Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve two-year terms)
elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held
12-13 September 1998 (next to be held in fall 2000); House of Peoples
- last constituted 4 December 1998 (next to be constituted in fall
election results: National House of Representatives - percent of vote
by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - KCD 17, HDZ-BiH 6,
SDP-BiH 6, Sloga 4, SDS 4, SRS-RS 2, DNZ 1, NHI 1, RSRS 1; House of
Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by
party/coalition - NA
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve 4-year terms); elections last held fall 1998
(next to be held fall 2000); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party/coalition - KCD 68, HDZ-BiH 28, SDP-BiH 25, NHI 4, DNZ 3, DSP 2,
BPS 2, HSP 2, SPRS 2, BSP 1, KC 1, BOSS 1, HSS 1; and a House of
Peoples (72 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 12 others); last
constituted November 1998; the Republika Srpska has a National
Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve 4-year
terms); elections last held fall 1998 (next to be held fall 2000);
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDS 19, KCD
15, SNS 12, SRS-RS 11, SPRS 10, SNSD 6, RSRS 3, SKRS 2, SDP 2, KKO 1,
HDZ-BiH 1, NHI 1; as of January 1999, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not
have a permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms
for the state and first-order administrative division entity

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, consists of nine members: four
members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National
Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
European Court of Human Rights

Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party of Rights or BSP [leader
NA]; Bosnian Party or BOSS ; Bosnian Patriotic Party
or BPS ; Center Coalition or KC (includes LBO, RS)
; Civic Democratic Party or GDS ; Coalition
for King and Fatherland or KKO (Dubravko Prstojevic]; Coalition for a
United and Democratic BIH or KCD [Alija IZETBEGOVIC; includes SDA and
SBH]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH ;
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP ; Croatian Peasants
Party of BiH or HSS-BiH ; Democratic Party for Banja Luka
and Krajina ; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DSP
; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ ;
Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO ; Liberal Party
or LS ; Muslim-Bosnia Organization or MBO
; New Croatian Initiative or NHI ;
Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH ; Party for
Democratic Action or SDA ; Party of Democratic
Progress of the Republika Srpska ; Party of Independent
Social Democrats or SNSD ; Radical Party Republika
Srpska of RSRS ; Republican Party or RS [Stjepan
KLJUIC]; Serb Coalition for Republika Srpska or SKRS [Predrag
LAZAREVIC]; Serb Democratic Party or Serb Lands or SDS [Dragan
KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance or SNS ; Serb
Radical Party-Republika Srpska or SRS-RS (banned by
the Office of the High Representative - see Government note - from
participation in the April elections); Sloga or Unity
(includes SNS, SPRS, SNSD); Social Democratic Party BIH or SDP-BiH
; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS
(observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ; note - Igor DAVIDOVIC
should become ambassador in early 2000
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: (202) 337-1500
FAX: (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. MILLER
embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use street address
telephone: (71) 445-700
FAX: (71) 659-722

Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side
with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the
flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full
five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the
hypotenuse of the triangle

Government - note: The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14
December 1995, retained Bosnia's exterior border and created a joint
multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government -
based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in
the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign,
economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a
second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint
Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian
Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the
territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with
overseeing internal functions. The Dayton Agreement established the
Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation
of the civilian aspects of the agreement. About 250 international and
450 local staff members are employed by the OHR.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Economy

Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been
greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic
structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military
industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large
share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare
in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995,
unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy
peace in place, output recovered in 1996-98 at high percentage rates
on a low base; but output growth slowed appreciably in 1999, and GDP
remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use
because, although both entities issue figures, national-level
statistics are not available. Moreover, official data do not capture
the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. In 1999,
the convertible mark - the national currency introduced in 1998 -
gained wider acceptance, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and
Herzegovina dramatically increased its reserve holdings.
Implementation of privatization, however, faltered in both areas.
Banking reform is also lagging. The country receives substantial
amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the
international community but will have to prepare for an era of
declining assistance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 23%
services: 58% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services

Unemployment rate: 35%-40% (1999 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (much of
capacity damaged or shut down) (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: 5%-10% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.22 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 32.43%
hydro: 67.57%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.065 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports: $450 million (1997 est.)

Exports - commodities: NA

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $2.95 billion (1997 est.)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.2 billion (1997 pledged)

Currency: 1 convertible marka (KM) = 100 convertible pfenniga

Exchange rates: convertible marks per US$1 - 1.9 (1999)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 238,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1999)

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of
modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when
compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 33 (plus 292 repeaters) (September

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transportation

total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam
until grids are repaired)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1995); note - some segments
still need repair and/or reconstruction

total: 21,846 km
paved: 11,425 km
unpaved: 10,421 km (1996 est.)
note: roads need maintenance and repair

Waterways: NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed
bridges, silt, and debris

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note -
pipelines now disrupted

Ports and harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac,
and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava none of which are
fully operational), Orasje

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 27 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1999 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Military

Military branches: Federation Army or VF (composed of both Croatian
and Bosniak elements), Army of the Serb Republic (composed of Bosnian
Serb elements); note - within both of these forces air and air defense
are subordinate commands

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,114,180 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 886,464 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 29,325 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Serbia over Serbian populated
areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for marijuana and opiate
trafficking routes to Western Europe




Background: Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland,
Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy,
closely tied to South Africa's, is dominated by cattle raising and


Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited
fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part
of the country


Population: 1,576,470
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (male 321,766; female 318,304)
15-64 years: 55% (male 417,734; female 453,947)
65 years and over: 4% (male 26,436; female 38,283) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.76% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 29.63 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 22.08 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

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