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Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.27 years
male: 38.63 years
female: 39.93 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white
1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.8%
male: 80.5%
female: 59.9% (1995 est.)

@Botswana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng,
Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*, South-East,
Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice
President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government; vice
president KHAMA is on a one-year leave of absence, effective 1 January
2000, but retains the title of vice president
head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government; vice
president KHAMA is on a one-year leave of absence, effective 1 January
2000, but retains the title of vice president
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October
2004); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National
Assembly vote - 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of
the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members
selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the
majority party; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - elections last held 16 October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 61.3%, other 38.7%;
seats by party - BDP 33, other 7

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP
; Botswana National Front or BNF ;
Botswana Congress Party or BCP ; Botswana People's
Party or BPP
note: main parties are: BDP, BNF, BCP; other minor parties joined
forces in 1999 to form the Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Kenneth
KOMA, chairman] but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM
parties are: the United Action Party , the
Social Democratic Union, the Independence Freedom Party [Motsamai
MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kgosi SEEPAPITSO IV
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (202) 244-4990
FAX: (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John E. LANGE
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: 353982
FAX: 356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black
stripe in the center

@Botswana:Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture still provides a livelihood for more
than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs
and accounts for only 3% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle
raising predominate. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and
poor soils. Diamond mining and tourism also are important to the
economy. Substantial mineral deposits were found in the 1970s and the
mining sector grew from 25% of GDP in 1980 to 38% in 1998.
Unemployment officially is 21% but unofficial estimates place it
closer to 40%. The Orapa 2000 project, which will double the capacity
of the country's main diamond mine, will be finished in early 2000.
This will be the main force behind continued economic expansion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 46% (including 36% mining)
services: 50% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 47% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.7% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 235,000 formal sector employees (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private
sector, including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South
Africa; most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence
agriculture (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20%-40% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.6 billion
expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560
million (FY96/97)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity - production: 1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.619 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 689 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, corn, millet, pulses, groundnuts
(peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: $2.36 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds 72%, vehicles, copper, nickel, meat
(1998)

Exports - partners: EU 74%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 21%,
Zimbabwe 3% (1996)

Imports: $2.05 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment,
textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 78%, Europe
8%, Zimbabwe 6% (1996)

Debt - external: $651 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $73 million (1995)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pulas (P) per US$1 - 4.6168 (January 2000), 4.6244
(1999), 4.2259 (1998), 3.6508 (1997), 3.3242 (1996), 2.7722 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Botswana:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 78,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: sparse system
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations
international: two international exchanges; digital microwave radio
relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 15, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Botswana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 971 km
narrow gauge: 971 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 18,482 km
paved: 4,343 km
unpaved: 14,139 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 92 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 82
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 57
under 914 m: 21 (1999 est.)

@Botswana:Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 373,990 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 196,572 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 19,132 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $61 million (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99/00)

@Botswana:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Namibia over uninhabited
Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River resolved by the ICJ
in favor of Botswana (13 December 1999); at least one other island in
Linyanti River is contested

______________________________________________________________________



BOUVET ISLAND

@Bouvet Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 58.5 sq km
land: 58.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 m; coast is mostly
inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Southern Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (93% ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

@Bouvet Island:People

Population: uninhabited (July 2000 est.)

@Bouvet Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Polar
Department of the Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

@Bouvet Island:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

@Bouvet Island:Communications

Communications - note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bouvet Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

@Bouvet Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BRAZIL

@Brazil:Introduction

Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal,
Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and
most populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than
half a century of military intervention in the governance of the
country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development
of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor
pool, Brazil became Latin America's leading economic power by the
1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.

@Brazil:Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 8,511,965 sq km
land: 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 14,691 km
border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 58%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys
the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and
animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
note: President CARDOSO in September 1999 signed into force an
environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution
and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail
sentences

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

Population: 172,860,370
note: Brazil took an intercensal count in August 1996 which reported a
population of 157,079,573; that figure was about 5% lower than
projections by the US Census Bureau, which is close to the implied
underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 25,607,074; female 24,670,960)
15-64 years: 66% (male 55,793,005; female 57,598,489)
65 years and over: 5% (male 3,727,912; female 5,462,930) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.94% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.84 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.94 years
male: 58.54 years
female: 67.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.3%
male: 83.3%
female: 83.2% (1995 est.)

@Brazil:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Government type: federative republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January
1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1
January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October 1998
(next to be held NA October 2002)
election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected president;
percent of vote - 53%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional
consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three
members from each state or federal district elected according to the
principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected
after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held 4 October 1998 for one-third of
Senate (next to be held NA October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate);
Chamber of Deputies - last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held NA
October 2002)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - PMDB 27, PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5, PSB 3, PDT 2,
PPS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - PFL 106, PSDB 99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58, PTB 31, PDT 25, PSB
19, PL 12, PCdoB 7, other 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, 11 judges are appointed for
life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or
PMDB ; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose
Carlos MARTINEZ, president]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB
; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB
; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo
MALUF, president]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS,
chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT ;
Liberal Front Party or PFL ; Liberal
Party or PL ; Popular Socialist Party
or PPS ; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU,
president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist
Worker's Party are critical of government's social and economic
policies

International organization participation: AfDB, BIS, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM
(observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 238-2700
FAX: (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony S. HARRINGTON
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito
Federal Cep 70403-900 Brazil
mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
telephone: (61) 321-7272
FAX: (61) 225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern
as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band
with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil:Economy

Economy - overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural,
mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs
that of all other South American countries and is expanding its
presence in world markets. In the late eighties and early nineties,
high inflation hindered economic activity and investment. The Real
Plan, instituted in the spring of 1994, sought to break inflationary
expectations by pegging the real to the US dollar. Inflation was
brought down to single digit annual figures, but not fast enough to
avoid substantial real exchange rate appreciation during the
transition phase of the Real Plan. This appreciation meant that
Brazilian goods were now more expensive relative to goods from other
countries, which contributed to large current account deficits.
However, no shortage of foreign currency ensued because of the
financial community's renewed interest in Brazilian markets as
inflation rates stabilized and the debt crisis of the eighties faded
from memory. The maintenance of large current account deficits via
capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more
risk averse to emerging market exposure as a consequence of the Asian
financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998.
After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on
structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led
international support program in November 1998. In January 1999, the
Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be
pegged to the US dollar. This devaluation helped moderate the downturn
in economic growth in 1999 that investors had expressed concerns about
over the summer of 1998. Brazil's debt to GDP ratio of 48% for 1999
beat the IMF target and helped reassure investors that Brazil will
maintain tight fiscal and monetary policy even with a floating
currency. The economy is expected to push growth up to 3% in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.057 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,150 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 36%
services: 50% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 47.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1999)

Labor force: 74 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry
27%

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $151 billion
expenditures: $149 billion, including capital expenditures of $36
billion (1998)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin,
steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
equipment

Industrial production growth rate: -2.6% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 316.927 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 4.92%
hydro: 91.02%
nuclear: 0.99%
other: 3.07% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 336.242 billion kWh (1998)



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