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Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 41.5 billion kWh
note: imports electricity from Paraguay (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn,
sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports: $46.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: manufactures, iron ore, soybeans, footwear,
coffee

Exports - partners: US 18%, Argentina 13%, Germany 5%, Netherlands 5%,
Japan 4% (1999)

Imports: $48.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemical products,
oil, electricity

Imports - partners: US 23%, Argentina 12%, Germany 10%, Japan 5%,
Italy 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $200 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.012 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: reals (R$) per US$1 - 1.804 (January 2000), 1.815
(1999), 1.161 (1998), 1.078 (1997), 1.005 (1996), 0.918 (1995)
note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was
determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official
rate floats independently with respect to the US$

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brazil:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4 million (1997)

Telephone system: good working system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 64 earth stations
international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east),
connected by microwave relay system to MERCOSUR Brazilsat B3 satellite
earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91
are collocated with AM stations) (1999)

Radios: 71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 138 (1997)

Televisions: 36.5 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 197 (1999)

@Brazil:Transportation

Railways:
total: 27,882 km (1,122 km electrified); note - excludes urban rail
broad gauge: 4,057 km 1.600-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,489 km 1.000-m gauge
dual gauge: 336 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (1999
est.)

Highways:
total: 1.98 million km
paved: 184,140 km
unpaved: 1,795,860 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km; natural
gas 4,246 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador,
Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
total: 174 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,964,808 GRT/6,403,284
DWT
ships by type: bulk 34, cargo 28, chemical tanker 5, combination
ore/oil 9, container 10, liquified gas 10, multi-functional large load
carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo
1, roll-on/roll-off 11, short-sea passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 3,277 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 541
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 138
914 to 1,523 m: 346
under 914 m: 32 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2,736
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 1,306
under 914 m: 1,357 (1999 est.)

@Brazil:Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air
and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 47,732,285 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 32,029,873 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,830,195 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13.408 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY99)

@Brazil:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: two short sections of boundary with Uruguay
are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the
Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio
Quarai and the Uruguay River

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca
cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic
consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to
control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian,
Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe;
increasingly used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air
transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related
violence and weapons smuggling

______________________________________________________________________



BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 60 sq km
land: 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in
elevation)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest
and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: approximately 3,000 native inhabitants, known as the Chagosians
or Ilois, were evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US
military facilities; in 1995, there were approximately 1,700 UK and US
military personnel and 1,500 civilian contractors living on the island
(July 2000 est.)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form: none
abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; administered by a
commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in
London

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994);
Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note - both reside in the UK
cabinet: NA
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the
flag of the UK is in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped
section bears a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half
of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Economy

Economy - overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the
largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities
are located. Construction projects and various services needed to
support the military installations are done by military and contract
employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There
are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephone system: separate facilities for military and public needs
are available
domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
connection to the Internet
international: international telephone service is carried by satellite
(2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield
on Diego Garcia
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease
on Diego Garcia expires in 2016

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Chagos Archipelago is claimed by
Mauritius and Seychelles

______________________________________________________________________



BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

@British Virgin Islands:Introduction

Background: First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were soon
after (1672) annexed by the English. The economy is closely tied to
the larger and more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US
dollar is the legal currency.

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 150 sq km
land: 150 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the island of Anegada

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 33%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
(except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the
islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

Population: 19,615 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 2,022; female 1,975)
15-64 years: 75% (male 7,517; female 7,102)
65 years and over: 5% (male 545; female 454) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.34% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 15.86 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.59 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.44 years
male: 74.57 years
female: 76.35 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God
7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@British Virgin Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Francis J. SAVAGE (since NA)
head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May 1995;
appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
the Legislative Council
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members
are elected by direct popular vote, one member from each of 9
electoral districts, four at-large members; members serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VIP
6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the
High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal; (one judge of the
Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High
Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary
Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [E.
Walwyn BREWLEY]; Independent People's Movement or IPM [Omar HODGE and
Allen O'NEAL]; United Party or UP ; Virgin Islands
Party or VIP

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in
the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked
on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll
bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the
Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an
estimated 45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists,
mainly from the US, visited the islands in 1997. In the mid-1980s, the
government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
substantial revenues. An estimated 250,000 companies were on the
offshore registry by yearend 1997. The adoption of a comprehensive
insurance law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of
confidentiality with regulated statutory gateways for investigation of
criminal offenses, is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even
more attractive to international business. Livestock raising is the
most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands'
ability to meet domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally
close links with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has
used the dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $287 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 6.2%
services: 92% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (1998)

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $121.5 million
expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity - production: 42 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 39 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: $6 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $175 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs,
machinery

Imports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external: $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 113 km (1995 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@British Virgin Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BRUNEI

@Brunei:Introduction

Background: Although greatly reduced in size since its heyday of the
16th century, the Sultanate of Brunei sits atop extensive petroleum
and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita
GDPs in the less developed countries.

@Brunei:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5,770 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 85%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
rare

Environment - current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from
forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

Population: 336,376 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 53,812; female 51,628)
15-64 years: 66% (male 118,207; female 103,819)
65 years and over: 3% (male 4,317; female 4,593) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.81 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 3.39 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.58 years
male: 71.23 years
female: 76.06 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 62%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 17%

Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%,
indigenous beliefs and other 10%

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic
Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head
of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
the monarch; deals with executive matters
note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the
monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members
appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and
the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that
determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat
Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity;
NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree
of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as
part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several
years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in
by the monarch for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party or
PPKB in Malay ; the
PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in
1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995
and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members;
other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962)
and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965,
deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni
Mohammad Alam
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 342-0159
FAX: (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD



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