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Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana),
Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: a new constitution was adopted by popular referendum on
28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24
July 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Ilir META (since 29 October 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
approved by the president
elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly
vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2,
invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor
(155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some
by proportional vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 29 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD
2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK
1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party - PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK
3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is
elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Republican Party or PR [Fatmir
MEHDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania Workers
Party) ; Albanian United Right or DBSH (includes
PBK, Albanian Republican Party or PRS, AND PDD) ;
Christian Democratic Party or PDK ; Democratic Alliance
or PAD ; Democratic Party or PD ;
Democratic Party of the Right or PDD ; Liberal Union
Party ; Movement of Legality Party or PLL ;
National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK ; Party of
National Unity or PUK ; Right National Front [Hysni
SELFO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD ; Unity for
Human Rights Party or PBDNJ ; note - Teodar LACO
of the Liberal Union Party was leader of the Social Democratic Union
of Albania or PBSD

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI
chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 223-4942
FAX: (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph LIMPRECHT
embassy: Rruga Elbasanit 103, Tirana
mailing address: American Embassy, Tirana, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-9510
telephone: (42) 47285 through 47289
FAX: (42) 32222

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center


Economy - overview: An extremely poor country by European standards,
Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market
economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression
accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in
1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain
stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to
renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which
exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997
- which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's
population - triggered severe social unrest which led to more than
1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and an 8% drop in
GDP. The new government, installed in July 1997, has taken strong
measures to restore public order and to revive economic activity and
trade. The economy continues to be bolstered by remittances of some
20% of the labor force that works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy.
These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign
trade deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992,
substantially improving peasant incomes. In 1998, Albania recovered
the 8% drop in GDP of 1997 and pushed ahead by 7% in 1999.
International aid has helped defray the high costs of receiving and
returning refugees from the Kosovo conflict.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,650 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 54%
industry: 25%
services: 21% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 19.6% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.692 million (including 352,000 emigrant workers and
261,000 domestically unemployed) (1994 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 49.5%, industry and services

Unemployment rate: 14% (October 1997) officially, but may be as high
as 28%

revenues: $393 million
expenditures: $676 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 5.15 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.91%
hydro: 97.09%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.29 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 500 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits,
sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Exports: $242 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and
metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners: Italy 63%, Greece 12%, Germany 6%, Netherlands,
Belgium, US (1998)

Imports: $925 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles,

Imports - partners: Italy 43%, Greece 29%, Turkey 4%, Germany 4%,
Bulgaria, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1998)

Debt - external: $820 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: EU pledged $100 million to share with The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1999)

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 135.31 (December 1999), 137.69
(1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996), 92.70 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 42,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,100 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it
to build fences
international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave
radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 810,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (1999)

Televisions: 405,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)


total: 670 km
standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

total: 18,000 km
paved: 5,400 km
unpaved: 12,600 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid,
and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64
km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,907 GRT/16,101 DWT
ships by type: cargo 6 (1999 est.)

Airports: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 856,820 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 701,194 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 35,508 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99)

@Albania:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Albanian Government supports protection
of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has
downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional
cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from
Serbian Republic; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector
jobs, and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest
Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and -
to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian
narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe




Background: After a century of rule by France, Algeria became
independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the
fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in December 1991
balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and
postpone the subsequent elections. The FIS response has resulted in a
continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus,
which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and
moderate religious-based parties. FIS's armed wing, the Islamic
Salvation Army, dissolved itself in January 2000 and many armed
insurgents surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote
national reconciliation. Nevertheless, some residual fighting
continues. Other concerns include large-scale unemployment and the
need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.


Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 2%
other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other
poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage,
petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading
to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in
particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and
fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)


Population: 31,193,917 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 5,591,044; female 5,389,046)
15-64 years: 61% (male 9,582,864; female 9,381,088)
65 years and over: 4% (male 577,875; female 672,000) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.74% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 23.14 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.65 years
male: 68.34 years
female: 71.02 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.6%
male: 73.9%
female: 49% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note -
referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into
law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed BENBITOUR (since 2 December
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of
vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 70%; note - six of the seven candidates
withdrew sighting persistent electoral fraud

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the
Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by
the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve
six-year terms; created as a result of the constitutional revision of
November 1996)
elections: National People's Assembly - last held 5 June 1997 (next to
be held NA 2001); elections for two-thirds of the Council of Nations -
last held 25 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
party - RND 40.8%, MSP 18.2%, FLN 16.8%, Nahda Movement 8.9%, FFS 5%,
RCD 5%, PT 1.1%, Republican Progressive Party 0.8%, Union for
Democracy and Freedoms 0.3%, Liberal Social Party 0.3%, independents
2.8%; seats by party - RND 156, MSP 69, FLN 62, Nahda Movement 34, FFS
20, RCD 19, PT 4, Republican Progressive Party 3, Union for Democracy
and Freedoms 1, Liberal Social Party 1, independents 11; Council of
Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 80, FLN
10, FFS 4, MSP 2 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party
breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Algerian Democratic Front or FAD
; Algerian National Front or ANF ;
Algerian Renewal Party or PRA ;
Democratic National Rally or RND ; Islamic
Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi
MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Liberal Social Party
; Movement for Democracy in Algeria or MDA [Ahmed Ben
BELLA]; Movement for Loyalty and Justice [Ahmed Taleb IBRAHIMI,
president; Movement of a Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud NAHNAH,
chairman]; Nahda Movement or Al Nahda ;
National Liberation Front or FLN [Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary
general]; National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Rabah
BENCHERIF]; National Republican Alliance or ANR ; Rally
for Culture and Democracy or RCD ;
Republican Progressive Party ; Social Democratic
Movement or MDS ; Socialist Forces Front or FFS
Union for Democracy and Freedoms ; Workers Party or
note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989
and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new
party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 265-2800
FAX: (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75
FAX: (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the
crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the
state religion)


Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 52% of budget revenues, 25% of GDP,
and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest
reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to
reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world
stalled in 1992 as the country became embroiled in political turmoil.
Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year
standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year
signed onto a three-year extended fund facility which ended 30 April
1998. Some progress on economic reform, Paris Club debt reschedulings
in 1995 and 1996, and oil and gas sector expansion contributed to a
recovery in growth since 1995. Still, the economy remains heavily
dependent on volatile oil and gas revenues. The government has
continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and
domestic investment outside the energy sector, but has had little
success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $147.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 51%
services: 37% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 9.1 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%,
construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and
services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1999 est.)

revenues: $15.5 billion
expenditures: $15.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 21.38 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.77%
hydro: 0.23%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 19.882 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 313 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 312 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus,
fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: $13.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products

Exports - partners: Italy 21.2%, US 15.0%, France 12.9%, Spain 10.3%,
Brazil 5.9%, Netherlands 5.5% (1998)

Imports: $9.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer

Imports - partners: France 29.5%, Italy 9.8%, US 7.2%, Spain 6.8%,
Germany 6.2%, Canada 4.1% (1998)

Debt - external: $30 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $897.5 million (1994)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 69.046 (January 2000),
66.574 (1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997), 54.749 (1996), 47.663

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 1.176 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth
stations are planned)
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1

Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios: 7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (not including low-power stations)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)


total: 4,820 km (301 km electrified; 215 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge (1996)

total: 104,000 km
paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,344 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 940,196 GRT/1,094,104 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquified gas 11,

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