Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 21 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 21 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


royalist resistance movement

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,763,568 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,547,078 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 156,119 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $85 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.4% (FY98)

@Cambodia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: offshore islands and sections of the
boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
not defined; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite; maritime
boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment site for Golden Triangle heroin; possible
money laundering; narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving
some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale
opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis
for the international market

______________________________________________________________________



CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Introduction

Background: The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon
merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally
enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite movement
toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands
of an ethnic oligarchy.

@Cameroon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 469,440 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,591 km
border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 78%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases

Environment - current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

Population: 15,421,937
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 3,326,334; female 3,251,402)
15-64 years: 54% (male 4,181,038; female 4,153,680)
65 years and over: 3% (male 235,741; female 273,742) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.47% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 36.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 11.89 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.82 years
male: 54.01 years
female: 55.64 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.88 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi
11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other
African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.4%
male: 75%
female: 52.1% (1995 est.)

@Cameroon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime
(opposition parties legalized in 1990)
note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration), 1 October 1961 (for areas ruled by Britain under UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally
adopted

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
September 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates
boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares relatively
meaningless

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or
shorten the term of the legislature)
elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RDCP
109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note - results
from 7 contested seats were cancelled by the Supreme Court and have
yet to be filled
note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature,
to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC
; Cameroon Liberation and Development Movement or
MLDC ; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDPC
(the RDPC or its predecessor parties have ruled since independence)
; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or
MDR ; Movement for the Liberation of Cameroonian
Youths or MLJC ; National Union for Democracy and Progress
or UNDP ; Social Democratic Front or
SDF ; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC-K
Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance for Change or FAC
; Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM [Vishe FAI, secretary
general]; Southern Cameroon National Council

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 265-8790
FAX: (202) 387-3826

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: 23-45-52
FAX: 23-07-53

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon:Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its oil resources and favorable
agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary
commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the
serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a
top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for
business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on
various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business
investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and
recapitalize the nation's banks. The government, however, has failed
to press forward vigorously with these programs. The latest enhanced
structural adjustment agreement was signed in October 1997; the
parties hope this will prove more successful, yet government
mismanagement and corruption remain problems. Inflation has been
brought back under control. Progress toward privatization of remaining
state industry should support continued economic growth in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $31.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 22%
services: 36% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (1984 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry and commerce
13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.23 billion
expenditures: $2.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 3.285 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.59%
hydro: 97.41%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 3.055 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas,
oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa
beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners: Italy 25%, Spain 20%, France 16%, Netherlands 7%
(1997 est.)

Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machines and electrical equipment, transport
equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners: France 25%, Nigeria 8%, US 8%, Germany 6% (1997
est.)

Debt - external: $11.5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $606.1 million (1995); note - France signed
two loan agreements totaling $55 million in September 1997, and the
Paris Club agreed in October 1997 to reduce the official debt by 50%
and to reschedule it on favorable terms with a consolidation of
payments due through 2000

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,800 (1995)

Telephone system: available only to business and government
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1998)

Televisions: 450,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Cameroon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,104 km
narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 34,300 km
paved: 4,288 km
unpaved: 30,012 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports: 50 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 11 (1999 est.)

@Cameroon:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,653,548 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,847,871 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 169,661 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $155 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY98/99)

@Cameroon:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in
the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents
in the past, is complete and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime
boundaries around the Bakasi Peninsula and Lake Chad is currently
before the ICJ, as is a dispute with Equatorial Guinea over the
exclusive maritime economic zone

______________________________________________________________________



CANADA

@Canada:Introduction

Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources,
Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties
to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an
unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be
the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking
residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.

@Canada:Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 9,976,140 sq km
land: 9,220,970 sq km
water: 755,170 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead,
molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North
American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law
of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly
90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada
border

@Canada:People

Population: 31,281,092 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 3,077,994; female 2,932,821)
15-64 years: 68% (male 10,714,305; female 10,591,494)
65 years and over: 13% (male 1,683,704; female 2,280,774) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 11.41 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.39 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.43 years
male: 76.02 years
female: 83 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other
European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%,
mixed background 26%

Religions: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 40%, other 18%

Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other
17.5%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Canada:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the
machinery of the government was set up in the British North America
Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October
1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
1993)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the
members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year
term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the
governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until
reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the
advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and
the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members
elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held 2 June 1997 (next to be held
by NA June 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 38%, Reform
Party 19%, Progressive Conservative Party 19%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New
Democratic Party 11%, other 2%; seats by party - Liberal Party 155,
Reform Party 60, Bloc Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 21,
Progressive Conservative Party 20, independents 1
note: seats by party as of December 1999 - Liberal Party 157, Reform
Party 57, Bloc Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 20, Progressive
Conservative Party 19, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime
minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois ;
Liberal Party ; New Democratic Party ;
Progressive Conservative Party ; Reform Party [Preston
MANNING]

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer),
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G-10,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURCA, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS,
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD,
UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP,
UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: (202) 682-1740
FAX: (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon D. GIFFIN
embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone: (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: (613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
(double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the
white band

@Canada:Economy

Economy - overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic
system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World
War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and
service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Real rates of growth
have averaged nearly 3.0% since 1993. Unemployment is falling and
government budget surpluses are being partially devoted to reducing
the large public sector debt. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement
(FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which
included Mexico) have touched off a dramatic increase in trade and
economic integration with the US. With its great natural resources,
skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid
economic prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing
constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas,
which has been raising the possibility of a split in the federation.
Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professional
persons lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense high-tech
infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $722.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,300 (1999 est.)



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 21 of 140)