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(1997)

Debt - external: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million
committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African
Development Bank

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chad:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Chad:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 33,400 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 49 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 42
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

@Chad:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force, Police,
Rural and Nomadic Guard (GNNT)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,749,033 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 915,664 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 79,596 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (FY96)

@Chad:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in
the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents
in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon,
Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

______________________________________________________________________



CHILE

@Chile:Introduction

Background: A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973
by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, which ruled
until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic
policies, first implemented by the PINOCHET dictatorship, led to
unprecedented growth in 1991-97 and have helped secure the country's
commitment to democratic and representative government. Growth slowed
in 1998-99, but will likely recover in 2000.

@Chile:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 756,950 sq km
land: 748,800 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,171 km
border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200/350 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region;
cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

Population: 15,153,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 2,137,826; female 2,044,546)
15-64 years: 65% (male 4,919,060; female 4,958,030)
65 years and over: 7% (male 453,234; female 641,101) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 17.19 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.74 years
male: 72.43 years
female: 79.22 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.2%
male: 95.4%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Chile:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Government type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
July 1989 and in 1993

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March
2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16
January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)
election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent of
vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular vote
and 10 appointed (all former presidents are senators for life);
members serve eight-year terms - one-half elected every four years)
and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA
December 2001); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 1997 (next
to be held NA December 2001)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - CPD (PDC 14, PS 4, PPD 2), UPP 17 (RN 7, UDI 10), Chile 2000
(UCCP) 1, independents 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
party - CPD 50.55% (PDC 22.98%, PS 11.10%, PPD 12.55%, PRSD 3.13%),
UPP 36.23% (RN 16.78%, UDI 14.43%); seats by party - CPD 70 (PDC 39,
PPD 16, PRSD 4, PS 11), UPP 46 (RN 24, UDI 21, Party of the South 1),
right-wing independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, judges are appointed
by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates
provided by the court itself, the president of the Supreme Court is
elected by the 21-member court; Constitutional Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: Chile 2000 - main party is UCCP
; Christian Democratic Party or PDC
; Coalition of Parties for Democracy
("Concertacion") or CPD - including PDC, PS,
PPD, PRSD; Independent Democratic Union or UDI ;
National Renewal or RN ; Party for Democracy or PPD
; Party of the South or PS ; Progressive
Center-Center Union or UCCP ; Radical
Social Democratic Party or PRSD ; Socialist Party or PS
; Union for the Progress of Chile ("Alliance for
Chile") or UPP - including RN and UDI

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United
Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five
largest labor confederations

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mario ARTAZA
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (202) 785-1746
FAX: (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John O'LEARY
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago
mailing address: APO AA 34033
telephone: (2) 232-2600
FAX: (2) 330-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

@Chile:Economy

Economy - overview: Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized
by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's
reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when
the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from
the military in 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the
military government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during the period
1991-1997, but fell to half that level in 1998 because of tight
monetary policies implemented to keep the current account deficit in
check and lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global
financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in 1999,
reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and
rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic growth for the
first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects of the
recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong financial
institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest
sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of 1999, exports
and economic activity had begun to recover, and a return to strong
growth in 2000 is likely. The inauguration of Ricardo LAGOS in March
2000, succeeding Eduardo FREI, will keep the presidency in the hands
of the center-left Concertacion coalition that has held office since
the return of civilian rule in 1990.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $185.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 33%
services: 61% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.3% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 5.8 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 14%, industry 27%, services
59% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $17 billion
expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998
est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -1.3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 37.49 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 50%
hydro: 50%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (December 1999)

Electricity - consumption: 26.665 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Exports: $15.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 27%, US 16%, Japan 14%, Brazil 6%, Argentina 5%
(1998)

Imports: $13.9 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles,
fuels, electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food

Imports - partners: US 24%, EU 23%, Argentina 11%, Brazil 6%, Japan
6%, Mexico 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $39 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $50.3 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 520.45 (January 2000),
508.78 (1999), 460.29 (1998), 419.30 (1997), 412.27 (1996), 396.77
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chile:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.603 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 197,300 (1995)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio
relay facilities
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
system with 3 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17
(one inactive) (1998)

Radios: 5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.15 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 26 (1999)

@Chile:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,782 km
broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 79,800 km
paved: 11,012 km
unpaved: 68,788 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 580,749 GRT/860,034 DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 9, chemical tanker 8, container 2,
liquified gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll-on/roll-off 4,
vehicle carrier 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 370 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 62
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 308
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 223 (1999 est.)

@Chile:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast Guard, and
Marines), Air Force, Carabineros of Chile (National Police),
Investigations Police
note: normally administered by Ministry of Interior; in times of
national emergency, Carabineros and Investigations Police are
considered part of the military

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,012,900 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,973,246 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 136,912 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.1% (FY99)

@Chile:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined
for the US and Europe; economic prosperity has made Chile more
attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits; imported
precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is
rising

______________________________________________________________________



CHINA

@China:Introduction

Background: For centuries China has stood as a leading civilization,
outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the
first half of the 20th century, China was beset by major famines,
civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World
War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship
that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over
everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After
1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping decentralized economic decision
making. Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the
world's second largest GDP. Political controls remain tight even while
economic controls continue to weaken.

@China:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 22,143.34 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury,
tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite,
aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 14%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur
dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water
shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated
wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural
land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development;
desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test
Ban

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia,
Canada, and US)

@China:People

Population: 1,261,832,482 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 168,040,006; female 152,826,953)
15-64 years: 68% (male 439,736,737; female 413,454,673)
65 years and over: 7% (male 41,200,297; female 46,573,816) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.9% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.12 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.73 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.38 years
male: 69.6 years
female: 73.33 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
(est.)
note: officially atheist

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
languages (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 89.9%
female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@China:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo
abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**,
Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,
Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong,
Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet),
Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries
for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are
being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial
law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998)
head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice
Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March
1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18
March 1998)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress



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