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elections: president and vice president elected by the National
People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March
1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the
president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
election results: JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth
National People's Congress with a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates
voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao
elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a
total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained,
and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal,
regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA December 1997-NA February 1998 (next to be
held late 2002-NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG
Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no substantial political
opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the
Falungong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC,
CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer),
(applicant), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador LI Zhaoxing
chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 328-2500
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph W. PRUEHER
embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: (10) 6532-3831
FAX: (10) 6532-6422
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner


Economy - overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has
been moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned
economy to a more market-oriented economy but still within a rigid
political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the
authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in
agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the
authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted
a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light
manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and
investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In
1999, with its 1.25 billion people but a GDP of just $3,800 per
capita, China became the second largest economy in the world after the
US. Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted
major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite
Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic
and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often
experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains
and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals. In late 1993 China's
leadership approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still
more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the
center's control over the financial system; state enterprises would
continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a
socialist market economy". In 1995-99 inflation dropped sharply,
reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control
food prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect
revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce
corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large
state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the
vigorous expansion of the economy and many of which had been losing
the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 50 to 100 million
surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities,
many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance,
changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to
maintaining growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to
continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the
environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall
of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose
arable land because of erosion and economic development. The next few
years will witness increasing tensions between a highly centralized
political system and an increasingly decentralized economic system.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.8 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 35%
services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 10% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 700 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 24%, services
26% (1998)

Unemployment rate: urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial
unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (1999 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics,

Industrial production growth rate: 8.8% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.16 trillion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 80.31%
hydro: 18.46%
nuclear: 1.23%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.014 trillion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 7.935 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 89 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea,
millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports: $194.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing,
footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels, chemicals

Exports - partners: US 22%, Hong Kong 19%, Japan 17%, Germany, South
Korea, Netherlands, UK, Singapore, Taiwan (1999)

Imports: $165.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, plastics, chemicals,
iron and steel, mineral fuels

Imports - partners: Japan 20%, US 12%, Taiwan 12%, South Korea 10%,
Germany, Hong Kong, Russia, Singapore (1999)

Debt - external: $159 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 yuan = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan per US$1 - 8.2793 (January 2000), 8.2783 (1999),
8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996), 8.3514 (1995)
note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 110 million (1999 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 23.4 million (1998)

Telephone system: domestic and international services are increasingly
available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves
principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system
with 55 earth stations is in place
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international
fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and

Radio broadcast stations: AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios: 417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by
China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly
3,000 are local city stations) (1997)

Televisions: 400 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)


total: 65,650 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)
standard gauge: 62,050 km 1.435-m gauge (12,150 km electrified; 20,250
km double track)
narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (1998
note: a new total of 68,000 km has been estimated for early 1999

total: 1.21 million km
paved: 271,300 km (with at least 24,474 km of expressways)
unpaved: 938,700 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 110,000 km navigable (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas
9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
total: 1,746 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,637,023
GRT/24,552,567 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 325, cargo 840, chemical tanker
21, combination bulk 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 125,
liquified gas 20, multi-functional large load carrier 5, passenger 8,
passenger/cargo 46, petroleum tanker 251, refrigerated cargo 24,
roll-on/roll-off 21, short-sea passenger 43, specialized tanker 2,
vehicle carrier 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 206 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 192
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 65
1,524 to 2,437 m: 90
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)


Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the
Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force,
Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed
Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of
Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed
forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 363,050,980 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 199,178,361 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,839,039 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $12.608 billion (FY99); note -
Western analysts believe that China's real defense spending is several
times higher than the official figure because a number of significant
items are funded elsewhere

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)

@China:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with India in dispute; dispute over
at least two small sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be
settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; portions of the boundary
with Tajikistan are indefinite; 33-km section of boundary with North
Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved in a
complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines,
Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with
Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but
claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan; agreement
on land border with Vietnam was signed in December 1999, but details
of alignment have not yet been made public

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem



@Christmas Island:Introduction

Background: This island was annexed by the UK in 1888, following the
discovery of phosphate rock.

@Christmas Island:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

total: 135 sq km
land: 135 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%
note: mainly tropical rainforest of which 60%-70% is in a national

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

Population: 2,564 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 7.77% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English, Chinese, Malay

@Christmas Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form: Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia
and Australian law

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator (acting) Graham NICHOLLS (since NA)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by
the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)
elections: last held NA December 1999 (next to be held NA December
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island:Economy

Economy - overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened by union workers. With
the support of the government, Australian-based Casinos Austria
International Ltd. built a $34 million casino on Christmas Island,
which opened in 1993. As of yearend 1999, gaming facilities at the
casino were temporarily closed but were expected to reopen in early
2000. Another economic prospect is the possible location of a
space-launching site on the island.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: NA

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: phosphate

Exports - partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: consumer goods

Imports - partners: principally Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.5207 (January
2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996),
1.3486 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: external telephone and telex services are provided by
Intelsat satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 600 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Christmas Island:Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Christmas Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Christmas Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none



@Clipperton Island:Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

total: 7 sq km
land: 7 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: subject to tornadoes

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

Population: uninhabited (July 2000 est.)

@Clipperton Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Clipperton Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Clipperton
former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from
French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Clipperton Island:Economy

Economy - overview: Although 115 species of fish have been identified
in the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic
activity is tuna fishing.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Clipperton Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none






Background: Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from
the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and
Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian
Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds
from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths
of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks
the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the
government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement,
neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their


Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,004 km
border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 39%
forests and woodland: 48%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse
of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea


Population: 39,685,655 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 6,463,195; female 6,310,723)
15-64 years: 63% (male 12,206,095; female 12,854,682)
65 years and over: 5% (male 832,986; female 1,017,974) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.68% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.85 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.73 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

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