Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 26 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 26 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.28 years
male: 66.43 years
female: 74.27 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.69 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.3%
male: 91.2%
female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

@Colombia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia

Data code: CO

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government
structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas,
Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta,
Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia,
Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de
Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
Distrito Capital de Santa fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima,
Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after
US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice
President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998);
Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); vice
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new
procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents
by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to
be held NA May 2002)
election results: no candidate received more than 50% of the total
vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the two
leading candidates was held 21 June 1998; Andres PASTRANA elected
president; percent of vote - 50.3%; Gustavo BELL elected vice
president; percent of vote - 50.3%

Legislative branch: Bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de
Representantes (163 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA March 1998 (next to be held NA March
2002); House of Representatives - last held NA March 1998 (next to be
held NA March 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PL 50%, PSC 24%,
smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 26%; seats by party
- PL 58, PSC 28, smaller parties 16; House of Representatives -
percent of vote by party - PL 52%, PSC 17%, other 31%; seats by party
- PL 98, PSC 52, indigenous parties 2, others 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de
Justical, highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from the
nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms;
Council of State, highest court of administrative law, judges are
selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for
eight-year terms; Constitutional Court, guards integrity and supremacy
of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to
the constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alliance-April 19 Movement
or AD/M-19 is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident
liberals and conservatives [Carlos Franco ECHAVARRIA, Antonio NAVARRO
Wolff, Otty PATINO, Carlos Alonso LUCIO]; Liberal Party or PL [Jose
Fernando BAUTISTA]; New Democratic Force or NDF ; Patriotic
Union or UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed
Forces of Colombia or FARC and Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Aida
ABELLA]; Social Conservative Party or PSC [Dr. Eugenio MERLANO de la
Ossa]

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent groups
active in Colombia - National Liberation Army or ELN; and
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC

International organization participation: BCIE, CAN, Caricom
(observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 387-8338
FAX: (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Washington, DC
consulate(s): Atlanta

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN
embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
mailing address: APO AA 34038
telephone: (1) 315-0811
FAX: (1) 315-2197

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top,
double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is
longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the
center

@Colombia:Economy

Economy - overview: Colombia is poised for moderate growth in the next
several years, marking an end to the severe 1999 recession when GDP
fell by about 5%. President PASTRANA's well-respected economic team is
taking steps to keep the recovery on track, such as lowering interest
rates and shoring up the financial system. In its loan agreement with
the IMF, the administration has pledged to take additional steps to
restore growth, reduce inflation, and improve the public sector's
fiscal health. Many challenges to sustainable growth remain, however.
Unemployment reached a record 20% in 1999 and may remain high,
contributing to the extreme inequality in income distribution.
Colombia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain future:
new exploration is needed to offset a pending decline in oil
production, and the coffee harvest has dropped off because of aging
plantations and natural disasters. The lack of public security is a
key concern for investors, making progress in the government's peace
negotiations with insurgent groups an important driver of economic
performance. Colombia is looking for international financial
assistance to boost economic recovery and peace prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $245.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 26%
services: 55% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 17.7% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 46.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (1999)

Labor force: 16.8 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry
24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $22 billion
expenditures: $24 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (2000
est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: -7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 45.02 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 30.11%
hydro: 69.25%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.64% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 41.963 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 94 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products;
shrimp

Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, gold, bananas, cut
flowers

Exports - partners: US 39%, EU 24%, Andean Community 15%, Japan 2%
(1998)

Imports: $10 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment,
consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

Imports - partners: US 35%, EU 20%, Andean Community 15%, Japan 7%
(1998)

Debt - external: $35 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $40.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 1,925.63 (January
2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96 (1997), 1,036.69
(1996), 912.83 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Colombia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,433,565 (December 1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,800,229 (December 1998)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite
system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities
international: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3
fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios: 21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 60 (includes seven low-power stations)
(1997)

Televisions: 4.59 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (1999)

@Colombia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,380 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to
maritime port at Bahia de Portete)
narrow gauge: 3,230 km 0.914-m gauge (1,830 km in use) (1995)

Highways:
total: 115,564 km
paved: 13,868 km
unpaved: 101,696 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 18,140 km, navigable by river boats (April 1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura,
Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco,
Turbo

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,343 GRT/67,168 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 5, container 1, multi-functional large
load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 1,101 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 90
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 37
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,011
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 62
914 to 1,523 m: 330
under 914 m: 618 (1999 est.)

@Colombia:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional,
includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,599,704 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,093,676 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 370,356 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.4 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.7% (FY99)

@Colombia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in
the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis;
world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 1998 - 101,500
hectares, a 28% increase over 1997); cultivation of opium in 1998
remained steady at 6,600 hectares; potential production of opium in
1997 - 66 metric tons, a 5% increase over 1996; the world's largest
processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the
US and other international drug markets, and an important supplier of
heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program

______________________________________________________________________



COMOROS

@Comoros:Introduction

Background: Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups
since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands
of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. A
subsequent attempt by the government to reestablish control over the
rebellious islands by force failed, and presently the Organization of
African Unity is brokering negotiations to effect a reconciliation.

@Comoros:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel,
about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,170 sq km
land: 2,170 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low
hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to
April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues: soil degradation and erosion results
from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing;
deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
Channel

@Comoros:People

Population: 578,400 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 123,891; female 123,241)
15-64 years: 54% (male 155,062; female 159,287)
65 years and over: 3% (male 8,072; female 8,847) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.05% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 40.05 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.59 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 86.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.03 years
male: 57.85 years
female: 62.28 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.38 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Comoran(s)
adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.3%
male: 64.2%
female: 50.4% (1995 est.)

@Comoros:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
conventional short form: Comoros
local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Government type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja),
Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 6 May 1999); note -
the interim government of President Tajiddine Ben Said MASSOUNDE,
which had assumed power on 6 November 1998 upon the death of President
Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim, was overthrown in a bloodless coup on 30
April 1999
head of government: Prime Minister Bianrifi TARMIDI (since 2 December
1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6 and 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA); prime
minister appointed by the president
note: President AZALI claimed a one-year term at the time of the coup;
elections, in theory, should be held in the spring of 2000 but are
likely to be dependent on the island of Anjouan remaining part of the
federation
election results: results of the last presidential election before the
coup were: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; percent of vote
- 64.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (15
seats: five from each island); members selected by regional councils
for six-year terms) and a Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note
- the Federal Assembly was dissolved following the coup of 30 April
1999
elections: Federal Assembly - last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to
be held NA)
election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - RND 39, FNJ 3, independent 1
note: the constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats
in the Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in
opposition, but if no party accomplishes that, the second most
successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December
1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes, two members appointed
by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one by
the Council of each island, and former presidents of the republic

Political parties and leaders: Front National pour la Justice or FNJ
(Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed Abdallah MOHAMED, Ahmed
ABOUBACAR, Soidiki M'BAPANOZA]; Rassemblement National pour le
Development or RND (party of the government)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS
(associate), ILO, IMF, InOC, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Ahmed DJABIR (ambassador to the
US and Canada and permanent representative to the UN)
chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and
Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East 50th
Street, New York, NY 10022
telephone: (212) 983-4712

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of the
field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed
stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the
four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali,
Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France,
but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is
described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

@Comoros:Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is
made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a
young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources.
The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a
subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy
dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the
economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force,
and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient
in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of
imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and
technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial
enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, to
promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth rate.
Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP
growth is to be met.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $410 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $725 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 5%
services: 55% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1998)

Labor force: 144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $48 million
expenditures: $53 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture,
jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 15 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 86.67%
hydro: 13.33%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 14 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra,
coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: $9.3 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil,
copra

Exports - partners: France 43%, US 43%, Germany 7% (1997)

Imports: $49.5 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods;
petroleum products, cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners: France 59%, South Africa 15%, Kenya 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $197 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $28.1 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 485.44 (January 2000),
461.77 (1999), 442.46 (1998), 437.75 (1997), 383.66 (1996), 374.36
(1995)
note: prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the
French franc at 75 CFs per French franc; since 1 January 1999, the CF
is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Comoros:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
radiotelephone communication stations
domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1998)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Comoros:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 880 km
paved: 673 km
unpaved: 207 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 26 of 140)