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@Comoros:Military

Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 136,914 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 81,477 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Comoros:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims French-administered Mayotte; the
islands of Anjouan (Nzwani) and Moheli (Mwali) have moved to secede
from Comoros

______________________________________________________________________



CONGO

______________________________________________________________________



CONGO

______________________________________________________________________



COOK ISLANDS

@Cook Islands:Introduction

Background: Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770, the
islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, administrative
control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose
self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration
of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are
continuing problems.

@Cook Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 240 sq km
land: 240 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Cook Islands:People

Population: 20,407 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.18 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.14 years
male: 69.2 years
female: 73.1 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.14 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cook Islander(s)
adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European
7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook
Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Cook Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
with the Cook Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New
Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August (1965)

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner
Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998), representative of New Zealand
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Terepai MAOATE (since 18
November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Norman GEORGE (since NA)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
responsible to Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is
appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is
appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative
elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually
becomes prime minister
note: ten years of rule by the Cook Islands Party (CIP) came to an end
18 November 1999 with the resignation of Prime Minister Joe WILLIAMS;
WILLIAMS had led a minority government since October 1999 when the New
Alliance Party (NAP) left the government coalition and joined the main
opposition Democratic Alliance Party (DAP); on 18 November 1999, DAP
leader Dr. Terepai MAOATE was sworn in as prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA June 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CIP
12, DAP 12, NAP 1
note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but
has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party or CIP [Joe
WILLIAMS]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP ; New
Alliance Party or NAP

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP (associate),
FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, OPCW,
Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars
(one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: Like many other South Pacific island nations, the
Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the
country from foreign markets, lack of natural resources, periodic
devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure.
Agriculture provides the economic base with major exports made up of
copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to
fruit-processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade deficits are made
up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid,
overwhelmingly from New Zealand. Efforts to exploit tourism potential,
encourage offshore banking, and expand the mining and fishing
industries have been partially successful in stimulating investment
and growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $112 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 9%
services: 73% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 6,601 (1993)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services
56% (1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 15 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 14 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans,
pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee

Exports: $4.2 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Exports - commodities: copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit,
coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing

Exports - partners: NZ 80%, Japan, Hong Kong (1993)

Imports: $85 million (c.i.f., 1994)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital
goods

Imports - partners: NZ 49%, Italy, Australia (1993)

Debt - external: $141 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $13.1 million (1995); note - New Zealand
furnishes the greater part

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9451 (January
2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996),
1.5235 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,180 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and
fiber-optic cable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 14,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus eight low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Cook Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 187 km
paved: 35 km
unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,310 GRT/2,181 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)

@Cook Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in
consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request

@Cook Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



CORAL SEA ISLANDS

@Coral Sea Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: less than 3 sq km
land: less than 3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
important

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Geography - note: important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological station
(July 2000 est.)

@Coral Sea Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered from Canberra by the Department of the
Environment, Sport and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands:Communications

Communications - note: there are automatic weather stations on many of
the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland

@Coral Sea Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Coral Sea Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited
regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the
activities of visitors

@Coral Sea Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



COSTA RICA

@Costa Rica:Introduction

Background: Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since the
late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its
democratic development. Although still a largely agricultural country,
it has achieved a relatively high standard of living. Land ownership
is widespread. Tourism is a rapidly expanding industry.

@Costa Rica:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 51,100 sq km
land: 50,660 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Isla del Coco

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 639 km
border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April);
rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the
clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion; water pollution
(rivers); fisheries protection; solid waste management

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
Conservation

@Costa Rica:People

Population: 3,710,558 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 609,051; female 581,302)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,177,262; female 1,150,673)
65 years and over: 5% (male 89,541; female 102,729) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.69% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.69 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.82 years
male: 73.3 years
female: 78.47 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.52 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Costa Rican(s)
adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%,
Chinese 1%, other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Evangelical Protestant, approximately
14%, other less than 1%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.8%
male: 94.7%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Costa Rica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form: Costa Rica
local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Government type: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas,
San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 7 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998);
First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998), Second
Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note -
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May
1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998),
Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note -
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February 1998
(next to be held 2 February 2002)
election results: Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ elected president; percent of
vote - Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 46.6%, Jose Miguel CORRALES (PLN)
44.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held 2 February 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - PUSC 41%, PLN 35%,
minority parties 24%; seats by party - PUSC 27, PLN 23, minority
parties 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are elected
for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Agriculture Labor Action or PALA
; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC
; Democratic Force Party or PFD ;
Libertarian Movement Party or PML ; National Christian
Alliance Party or ANC ; National
Independent Party or PNI ; National Integration
Party or PIN ; National Liberation Party or PLN
; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis Manuel
CHACON]
note: mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN; numerous small parties
share less than 25% of population's support

Political pressure groups and leaders: Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of
Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party
affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD
(Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or
FTSP; Free Costa Rica Movement or MCRL (rightwing militants); National
Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of
Educators or ANDE

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime DAREMBLUM
chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-2945
FAX: (202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio,
San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa
consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD
embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address: APO AA 34020
telephone: 220-3939
FAX: 220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
(double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk
on the hoist side of the red band

@Costa Rica:Economy

Economy - overview: Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends on
tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been
substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social
safety net has been put into place. Economic growth has rebounded from
-0.9% in 1996 to 4% in 1997, 6% in 1998, and 7% in 1999. Inflation
rose to 22.5% in 1995, dropped to 11.1% in 1997, 12% in 1998, and 11%
in 1999. Large government deficits - fueled by interest payments on
the massive internal debt - have undermined efforts to maintain the
quality of social services. Curbing inflation, reducing the deficit,
and improving public sector efficiency remain key challenges to the
government. Political resistance to privatization has stalled
liberalization efforts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 22%
services: 64% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 34.7% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.377 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services
58% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.6% (1998 est.); 7.5% underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $1.93 billion
expenditures: $2.27 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing,
construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 24.5% (1999)

Electricity - production: 5.742 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 9.28%
hydro: 80.62%
nuclear: 0%
other: 10.1% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.267 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 77 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 4 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans,
potatoes; beef; timber

Exports: $6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, bananas, sugar; textiles, electronic
components, electricity

Exports - partners: US 49%, EU 22%, Central America 10% (1999)

Imports: $6.5 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital
equipment, petroleum, electricity

Imports - partners: US 41%, Japan 8.1%, Mexico 7.3%, Venezuela 4%
(1998)

Debt - external: $3.9 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $107.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 299.63 (February
2000), 285.68 (1999), 257.23 (1998), 232.60 (1997), 207.69 (1996),
179.73 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Costa Rica:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 451,000 (525,700 main lines installed)
(yearend 1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 46,500 (December 1996)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service
domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave,
fiber-optic and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is
available
international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two submarine
cables (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 43, shortwave 19 (1998)

Radios: 980,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 11 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 525,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Costa Rica:Transportation

Railways:
total: 950 km
narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 37,273 km
paved: 7,827 km
unpaved: 29,446 km (1998 est.)



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