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2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vernon Lorden SHAW elected president; percent of
legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9
appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote representatives;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 31 January 2000 (next to be held by NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LPD
10, UWP 9, DFP 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Saint
Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over
the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles
SAVARIN]; Labor Party of Dominica or LPD ; United
Workers Party or UWP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or
DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (resident in
Dominica)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: (202) 364-6781
FAX: (202) 364-6791
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Dominica; US interests are served by the embassy in Bridgetown,
Barbados

Flag description: green, with a centered cross of three equal bands -
the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the
horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the
center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled
by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars
represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy depends on agriculture and is highly
vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms.
Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 21% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains
difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the
lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the
country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out
one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The economy's recovery
continued in 1998, fueled by increases in construction, soap
production, and tourist arrivals. The government is attempting to
develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the
island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $225 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,400 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 16%
services: 63% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (1998)

Labor force: 25,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce
32%, services 28%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $72 million
expenditures: $79.9 million, including capital expenditures of $11.5
million (FY97/98)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 50%
hydro: 50%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 37 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops,
coconuts, cocoa; forest and fishery potential not exploited

Exports: $60.8 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: bananas 50%, soap, bay oil, vegetables,
grapefruit, oranges

Exports - partners: Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: $120.4 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
food, chemicals

Imports - partners: US 41%, Caricom countries 25%, UK 13%,
Netherlands, Canada (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $90 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $24.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Dominica:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: fully automatic network
international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to
Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint
Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 46,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (however, there is one cable
television company) (1997)

Televisions: 6,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Dominica:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 780 km
paved: 393 km
unpaved: 387 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Dominica:Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Dominica:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
Europe; minor cannabis producer; banking industry is vulnerable to
money laundering

______________________________________________________________________



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Introduction

Background: A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative, rule for
much of the 20th century was brought to an end in 1996 when free and
open elections ushered in a new government.

@Dominican Republic:Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 48,730 sq km
land: 48,380 sq km
water: 350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total: 275 km
border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject
to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the
sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

Population: 8,442,533 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 1,486,902; female 1,422,977)
15-64 years: 61% (male 2,609,934; female 2,518,330)
65 years and over: 5% (male 192,254; female 212,136) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.15 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.72 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.2 years
male: 71.12 years
female: 75.38 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.1%
male: 82%
female: 82.2% (1995 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republica Dominicana
local short form: none

Data code: DR

Government type: representative democracy

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat,
Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria
Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez,
San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago
Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons
regardless of age
note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996,
runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000)
election results: Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna elected president; percent of
vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (PLD) 51.25%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez
(PRD) 48.75%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (149 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA May
2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA
May 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PRD 24, PLD 3, PRSC 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote
by party - NA; seats by party - PRD 83, PLD 49, PRSC 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, judges are elected by
a Council made up of legislative and executive members with the
president presiding

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy Party or APD
;
Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union or UPA ;
Democratic Quisqueyan Party or PQD ; Democratic
Union or UD ; Dominican Communist Party or
PCD ; Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Jose Tomas
PEREZ]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD ;
Dominican Worker's Party or PTD ; Independent
Revolutionary Party or PRI ; Liberal Party of the Dominican
Republic or PLRD ; National Progressive Force or
FNP ; National Veterans and Civilian Party or PNVC
; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Rogelio
DELGADO Bogaert]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin
BALAGUER Ricardo]
note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain
individual party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS,
OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto Bienvenido SALADIN Selin
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 332-6280
FAX: (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami,
New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce
(Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles MANATT
embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
Navarro, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500
telephone: (809) 221-2171
FAX: (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges
divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist
side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a
small coat of arms is at the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic:Economy

Economy - overview: In December 1996, incoming President FERNANDEZ
presented a bold reform package for this Caribbean economy - including
the devaluation of the peso, income tax cuts, a 50% increase in sales
taxes, reduced import tariffs, and increased gasoline prices - in an
attempt to create a market-oriented economy that can compete
internationally. Even though most reforms are stalled in the
legislature - including the intellectual property rights bill, social
security reform, and a new electricity law first submitted in 1993 -
the economy has grown vigorously under FERNANDEZ's administration.
Construction, tourism and telecommunications are leading the advance.
The government is working to increase electric generating capacity, a
key to continued economic growth; the state electricity company was
finally privatized following numerous delays. The continuation of this
vigorous growth in 2000 will depend on the policies adopted by the new
administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $43.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.6%
industry: 30.8%
services: 55.6% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 25% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 39.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (1999)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: services and government 58.7%, industry
24.3%, agriculture 17% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.3 billion
expenditures: $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $867
million (1999 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 8.476 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 72.04%
hydro: 27.62%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.34% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 7.883 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco,
rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products,
beef, eggs

Exports: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee,
cocoa, tobacco, meats

Exports - partners: US 61.6%, Belgium 11.1%, Asia 5.9%, Canada 2.9%
(1998 est.)

Imports: $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics,
chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 56%, Venezuela 23%, Mexico 9%, Japan 4% (1999
est.)

Debt - external: $3.7 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $239.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 16.161 (January
2000), 16.033 (1999), 15.267 (1998), 14.265 (1997), 13.775 (1996),
13.597 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Dominican Republic:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 569,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,000 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
radio relay network
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 1.44 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1997)

Televisions: 770,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 757 km
standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)
narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominican Republic Government
Railway); 240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges
(0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways:
total: 12,600 km
paved: 6,224 km
unpaved: 6,376 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de
Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (1999 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,239,309 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,405,845 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 86,569 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $180 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY98)

@Dominican Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________



ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Introduction

Background: The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries
that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others
being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost
territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war
with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.

@Ecuador:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher
elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 56%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 12,920,092 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36.23% (male 2,379,541; female 2,301,543)
15-64 years: 59.4% (male 3,794,515; female 3,880,367)
65 years and over: 4.37% (male 262,701; female 301,425) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.04% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 26.51 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.06 years
male: 68.26 years
female: 73.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.18 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 65%, Amerindian
25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
Quechua)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.1%
male: 92%
female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

@Ecuador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000)
following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro
PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government
head of government: President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000)
following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro
PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31
May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)



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