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election results: results of the last election prior to the coup were:
Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote - 51%
note: a military-indigenous coup toppled democratically elected
President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the military quickly handed
power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on 22 January; Congress
then elected a new vice president from a slate of candidates submitted
by NOBOA; the new administration is scheduled to complete the
remainder of MAHAUD's term, due to expire in January 2003

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
(121 seats; 79 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to
serve four-year terms; 42 members are popularly elected by province -
two per province - for four-year terms)
elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP
32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note -
defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting
in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, new justices are
elected by the full Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP
; Democratic Left or ID ;
Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE ; Pachakutik-New
Country or P-NP ; Popular Democracy or
DP ; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Jaime HURTADO
Gonzalez]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA ;
Roldosist Party or PRE ; Social
Christian Party or PSC
note: political blocs include: far left - MPD; populist - CFP and
P-NP; populist left - PRE; center left - ID, DP, and FRA; center right
- PSC and PCE

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Indigenous
Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE

International organization participation: CAN, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (202) 234-7200
FAX: (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gwen CLARE
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone: (2) 562-890
FAX: (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double
width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center
of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does
not bear a coat of arms


Economy - overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such
as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can
have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade
Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its
accession commitments. In recent years, growth has been uneven due to
ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The aftermath of El Nino
and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into a
free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector
collapse, which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on
external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a
70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999, which eventually
forced a desperate government to dollarize the currency regime in
2000. The move stabilized the currency, but did not stave off the
ouster of the government. The new president, Gustavo NOBOA has yet to
complete negotiations for a long sought IMF accord. He will find it
difficult to push through the reforms necessary to make dollarization
work in the long-run.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $54.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 36%
services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 37.6% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 59.9% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services
45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% with widespread underemployment (November 1998

revenues: planned $5.1 billion (not including revenue from potential
expenditures: $5.1 billion including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 9.657 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 27.96%
hydro: 72.04%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 8.981 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc
(tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork,
dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa, cut
flowers, fish

Exports - partners: US 39%, Colombia 7%, Italy 6%, Peru 5%, Chile 3%

Imports: $2.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials, fuels;
consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 39%, Colombia 11%, Japan 9%, Venezuela 5%,
Mexico 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $15.3 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $695.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 24,860.7 (January 2000),
11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996),
2,564.5 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 748,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 49,776 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 392, FM 27, shortwave 29 (1998)

Radios: 4.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (including one station on the
Galapagos Islands) (1997)

Televisions: 1.55 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (1999)


total: 812 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 812 km 1.067-m gauge

total: 43,197 km
paved: 8,165 km
unpaved: 35,032 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
total: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 233,151 GRT/388,750 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, liquified gas 1, passenger 4,
petroleum tanker 22 (1999 est.)

Airports: 182 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 57
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 20 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 125
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 89 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana),
National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,296,678 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,224,033 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 130,869 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY98)

@Ecuador:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: demarcation of the agreed-upon border with
Peru was completed in May 1999

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for cocaine and derivatives
of coca originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor
chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important
money-laundering hub; increased activity on frontiers by trafficking
groups and Colombian insurgents




Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired
full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan
High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the
time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of
Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world)
will continue to stress Egyptian society and overtax resources as the
country enters the new millennium.


Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New

Land boundaries:
total: 2,689 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below
Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral
reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from
agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very
limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the
only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining
natural resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between
Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal,
shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size,
and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle
Eastern geopolitics


Population: 68,359,979 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 12,260,343; female 11,701,253)
15-64 years: 61% (male 21,111,615; female 20,714,511)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,131,760; female 1,440,497) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.72% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.38 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.33 years
male: 61.29 years
female: 65.47 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.15 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.4%
male: 63.6%
female: 38.8% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina',
Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October
head of government: Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year
term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular
referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to
be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's
nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly
or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10
appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the
Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a
consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88
appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 29 November 1995 (next to be
held NA November 2000); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next
to be held NA)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP
72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party - NDP 317,
independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1,
LSP 1; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%,
independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Unionist Party [Mohammed
'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK]; Green Party ; Misr al-Fatah Party
(Young Egypt Party) ; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party [Dia'
al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed
Hosni MUBARAK, leader] - governing party; National Progressive
Unionist Grouping or NPUG ; New Wafd Party or NWP
; Social Justice Party ;
Socialist Labor Party or SLP ; Socialist Liberal Party
or LSP ; Umma Party
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban
against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
aggressively in the past six years to block its influence; trade
unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
(associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD,
ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
(observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 895-5400
FAX: (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: (2) 3557371
FAX: (2) 3573200

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden
eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the
country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of
Syria, which has two green stars, and to the flag of Iraq, which has
three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line
centered in the white band


Economy - overview: A series of IMF arrangements - coupled with
massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in
the Gulf war coalition - helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic
performance during the 1990s. Through sound fiscal and monetary
policies, Cairo tamed inflation, slashed budget deficits, and built up
foreign reserves. Although the pace of structural reforms - such as
privatization and new business legislation - has been slower than the
IMF envisioned, Egypt's steps toward a more market-oriented economy
have prompted increased foreign investment. Lower combined hard
currency inflows - from tourism, worker remittances, oil revenues, and
Suez Canal tolls - in 1998 and the first half of 1999 resulted in
pressure on the Egyptian pound and sporadic dollar shortages, but
external payments were not in crisis. Despite ample reserves, the
Central Bank did not provide sufficient hard currency to commercial
banks and Cairo restricted imports for a short period; these
developments confirmed to some investors and currency traders that
government financial operations lack sufficient coordination and
openness. Monetary pressures have since eased, however, with the
continued oil price recovery starting in mid-1999 and a moderate
rebound in tourism. Increased gas exports are a major plus factor in
future growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $200 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 32%
services: 51% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1999)

Labor force: 19 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, services 38%, industry
22% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.8% (1999 est.)

revenues: $20.7 billion
expenditures: $22.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 57.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 78.72%
hydro: 21.28%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 53.754 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; fish

Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton,
textiles, metal products, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 47%, US 14%, Turkey 8% (1998)

Imports: $15.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals,
wood products, fuels

Imports - partners: EU 42%, US 16%, Japan 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $30 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US$1 - market rate - 3.4050
(January 2000), 3.4050 (1999), 3.3880 (1998), 3.3880 (1997), 3.3880
(1996), 3.3900 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June


Telephones - main lines in use: 3.168 million (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 380,000 (1999)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate
for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; Internet
access available
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean
and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine
cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to
Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen
(a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeater stations), FM 14,
shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 20.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 51 (September 1995)

Televisions: 7.7 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 31 (1999)


total: 4,955 km
standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km
double track)

total: 64,000 km
paved: 49,984 km
unpaved: 14,016 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo
Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5
km (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to
16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
total: 180 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,348,148 GRT/2,014,483
ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 63, container 1, liquified gas 1,
passenger 57, petroleum tanker 14, roll-on/roll-off 16, short-sea
passenger 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 90 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 71
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 19
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 9 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 18,164,353 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 11,766,949 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 704,373 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8.2% (FY95/96)

@Egypt:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Egypt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib
Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial Sudanese
administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which

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