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paved: 0 km
unpaved: 2,880 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,907 GRT/26,812 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
National Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 105,420 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 53,564 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.6% (FY97/98)

@Equatorial Guinea:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: exclusive maritime economic zone boundary
dispute with Cameroon is presently before the ICJ; maritime boundary
dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over islands in
Corisco Bay; maritime boundary dispute with Nigeria and Cameroon
because of disputed jurisdiction over oil-rich areas in the Gulf of
Guinea

______________________________________________________________________



ERITREA

@Eritrea:Introduction

Background: Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a
federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years
later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991
with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was
overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A border war with
Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 remains unresolved.

@Eritrea:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 121,320 sq km
land: 121,320 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,630 km
border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in
Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except in coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: near Kulul within the Denakil depression -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,018 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and
natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 49%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 32% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts and locust storms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil
erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic geopolitical position along world's
busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on
24 May 1993

@Eritrea:People

Population: 4,135,933 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 888,573; female 883,939)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,104,082; female 1,122,683)
65 years and over: 3% (male 69,518; female 67,138) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.86% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 42.71 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.3 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: according to the UNHCR, about 150,000 Eritrean refugees in Sudan
have registered for voluntary repatriation, following the restoration
of diplomatic relations between Eritrea and Sudan in January 2000

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.79 years
male: 53.36 years
female: 58.29 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.93 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other
Cushitic languages

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 25%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Eritrea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form: Hagere Ertra
local short form: Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Government type: transitional government
note: following a successful referendum on independence for the
Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly,
composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or
PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional
Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS
Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the
constitution, ratified in August 1997, did not enter into effect,
pending parliamentary and presidential elections; those elections have
been postponed indefinitely following the start of the border conflict
with Ethiopia

Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular - awraja); Akale
Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye
note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating
that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been
established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six
provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, became
effective in 1997; the new provinces, the names of which had not been
recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for recognition by the
US Government, pending acceptable definition of the boundaries, were:
Anseba, Debub, Debubawi Keyih Bahri, Gash-Barka, Maakel, and Semanawi
Keyih Bahri; more recently, it has been reported that these provinces
have been redesignated regions and renamed Southern Red Sea, Northern
Red Sea, Anseba, Gash-Barka, Southern, and Central

Independence: 23-25 April 1993 referendum was held with vote for
independence as the outcome; 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the
Eritrea Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May
(1993)

Constitution: the transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993,
was replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 May 1997, but not yet
implemented

Legal system: operates on the basis of transitional laws that
incorporate pre-independence statutes of the Eritrean People's
Liberation Front, revised Ethiopian laws, customary laws, and post
independence enacted laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority
note: the president is head of the State Council and National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last
held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term
limits not established)
elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new
constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old
Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member
Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and
ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans
living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to
serve as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections
to a National Assembly are held; only 75 members will be elected to
the National Assembly - the other 75 will be members of the Central
Committee of the PFDJ

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; 10 provincial courts; 29 district
courts

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS
Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF ; Eritrean
Liberation Front-Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC ;
Eritrean Liberation Front-United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said
NAWD]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador SEMERE Russom
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (202) 319-1991
FAX: (202) 319-1304

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William D. CLARKE
embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara
mailing address: P. O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: (1) 120004
FAX: (1) 127584

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is
green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive
branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea:Economy

Economy - overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993,
Eritrea faced the economic problems of a small, desperately poor
country. The economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, with
80% of the population involved in farming and herding. The small
industrial sector consists mainly of light industries with outmoded
technologies. Domestic output (GDP) is substantially augmented by
worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come from custom
duties and taxes on income and sales. Road construction is a top
domestic priority. In the long term, Eritrea may benefit from the
development of offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. Eritrea's
economic future depends on its ability to master fundamental social
and economic problems, e.g., by reducing illiteracy, promoting job
creation, expanding technical training, attracting foreign investment,
and streamlining the bureaucracy. The most immediate threat to the
economy, however, is the possible expansion of the border conflict
with Ethiopia, which broke out in May 1998. The hostilities have
drained away substantial resources vital to Eritrea's economic
development.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $750 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 20%
services: 62% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce
20%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $283.9 million
expenditures: $351.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 177.6 million kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1997 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 177.6 million kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1997)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1997)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton,
tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish

Exports: $52.9 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small
manufactures

Exports - partners: Ethiopia 64%, Sudan 17%, Italy 5%, Saudi Arabia
2%, US, Yemen (1997)

Imports: $489.4 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 16%, Italy 14%, UAE 13%, Ethiopia 9%,
Germany 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $76 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $123.1 million (1997)

Currency: 1 nafka = 100 cents

Exchange rates: nakfa per US$1 = 9.5 (January 2000), 7.6 (January
1999), 7.2 (March 1998 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Eritrea:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 23,578 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: very inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government
is seeking international tenders to improve the system
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 2 (2000)

Radios: 345,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (2000)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Eritrea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 317 km
narrow gauge: 317 km 0.950-m gauge (1999)
note: links Ak'ordat and Asmara with the port of Massawa;
nonoperational since 1978 except for about a 5 km stretch that was
reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and of
the rolling stock is under way

Highways:
total: 4,010 km
paved: 874 km
unpaved: 3,136 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,069 GRT/19,549 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, liquified gas 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 21 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Eritrea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $196 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 28.6% (FY97)

@Eritrea:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute over alignment of boundary with
Ethiopia led to armed conflict in 1998, which is still unresolved
despite arbitration efforts

______________________________________________________________________



ESTONIA

@Estonia:Introduction

Background: After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, Estonia
attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in
1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet
Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been
free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.

@Estonia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont
combined

Land boundaries:
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring
states
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber,
cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 44%
other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment - current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide
from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of
soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former
Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade
lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected
by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Estonia:People

Population: 1,431,471 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 129,204; female 124,269)
15-64 years: 68% (male 466,960; female 503,233)
65 years and over: 14% (male 67,781; female 140,024) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.59% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 8.45 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.55 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.45 years
male: 63.4 years
female: 75.79 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.19 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.1%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.8% (1998)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox,
Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic,
Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish

Languages: Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, English, Finnish,
other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1998 est.)

@Estonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):
Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa
(Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa
(Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla),
Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa
(Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)
note: counties have the administrative center name following in
parentheses

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 29 March 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he
or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of
balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus
members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between
the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last
held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime minister
nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results: Lennart MERI reelected president by an electoral
assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI
and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennart MERI 61%,
Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Center Party 28, Union of Pro Patria (Fatherland League) 18, Reform
Party 18, Moderates 17, Country People's Party (Agrarians) 7,
Coalition Party 7, UPPE 6,

Judicial branch: National Court, chairman appointed by Parliament for
life

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR,
chairman]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOVEL,
chairman]; Country People's Party ; Moderates or M
; Reform Party or RE ; Union of
Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) ;
United People's Party or UPPE

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH,
UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON
chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 588-0101
FAX: (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Melissa WELLS
embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: (6) 312-021
FAX: (6) 312-025

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990
- three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia:Economy

Economy - overview: In 1999, Estonia experienced its worst year
economically since it regained independence in 1991 largely because of
the impact of the August 1998 Russian financial crisis. Estonia joined
the WTO in November 1999 - the second Baltic state to join - and
continued its EU accession talks. GDP is forecast to grow 4% in 2000.
Privatization of energy, telecommunications, railways, and other
state-owned companies will continue in 2000. Estonia expects to
complete its preparations for EU membership by the end of 2002.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 30.7%
services: 65.7% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 6.3% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 28.5% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 785,500 (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture and forestry
11%, services 69% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.7% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.37 billion
expenditures: $1.37 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 8.742 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.98%
hydro: 0.02%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 7.58 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 700 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 150 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and
dairy products; fish

Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and appliances 19%, wood products
15%, textiles 13%, food products 12%, metals 10%, chemical products 8%
(1999)

Exports - partners: Sweden 19.3%, Finland 18.8%, Russia 8.8%, Latvia
8.8%, Germany 7.3%, US 2.5% (1999)



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