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Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and appliances 26%, foodstuffs 15%,
chemical products 10%, metal products 9%, textiles 8% (1999)

Imports - partners: Finland 23%, Russia 13.2%, Sweden 10%, Germany
9.1%, US 4.7 (1999)

Debt - external: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $137.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 sents

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1 - 15.417 (January 2000), 4.678
(1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997), 12.034 (1996), 11.465 (1995);
note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of
8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Estonia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 476,078 (yearend 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 246,000 (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: foreign investment in the form of joint business
ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services
available throughout most of the country; about 150,000 unfilled
subscriber requests
domestic: local - the Ministry of Transport and Communications is
expanding cellular telephone services to form rural networks;
intercity - highly developed fiber-optic backbone (double loop) system
presently serving at least 16 major cities (1998)
international: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and
Russia provide worldwide packet switched service; two international
switches are located in Tallinn

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (all AM stations inactive since July
1998), FM 82, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.01 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 31 (plus five repeaters) (September
1995)

Televisions: 605,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999)

@Estonia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated
industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 49,480 km
paved: 10,935 km (including 75 km of expressways)
unpaved: 38,545 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 320 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:
total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 306,264 GRT/293,083 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 20, combination bulk 1, container 5,
petroleum tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off 13, short-sea passenger 6 (1999
est.)

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Estonia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air
Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard,
Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and
border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 359,764 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 282,456 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,965 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $70 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)

@Estonia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a
technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been signed
or ratified as of 1 January 2000

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America
to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western
Europe to Scandinavia; possible precursor manufacturing and/or
trafficking

______________________________________________________________________



ETHIOPIA

@Ethiopia:Introduction

Background: Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian
monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule, one exception
being the Italian occupation of 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta, the
Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SALASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and
established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings,
wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was
finally toppled by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's
Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was
adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in
1995. A border war with Eritrea that erupted in May 1998 has
strengthened the ruling coalition, but has hurt the nation's economy.

@Ethiopia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,127,127 sq km
land: 1,119,683 sq km
water: 7,444 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,311 km
border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Denakil -125 m
highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 25%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was
lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993

@Ethiopia:People

Population: 64,117,452
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 15,167,395; female 14,977,346)
15-64 years: 50% (male 16,195,637; female 15,987,089)
65 years and over: 3% (male 816,011; female 973,974) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.76% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 45.13 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 17.63 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan for refuge from war
and famine in earlier years is expected to continue for several years;
small numbers of Sudanese and Somali refugees, who fled to Ethiopia
from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return
to their homes

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.17 years
male: 44.41 years
female: 45.94 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.07 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella
6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic, Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic,
other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in
schools)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.5%
male: 45.5%
female: 25.3% (1995 est.)

@Ethiopia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative regions
(astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akabibi) and 2 chartered
cities*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara, Benishangul/Gumaz; Dire Dawa*;
Gambela; Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and
Peoples Region; Tigray

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of MENGISTU
regime)

Constitution: ratified December 1994; effective 22 August 1995

Legal system: currently transitional mix of national and regional
courts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994
constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and
approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives
for a six-year term; election last held NA June 1995 (next to be held
NA May 2001); prime minister designated by the party in power
following legislative elections
election results: NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote by
the House of People's Representatives - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Federation or upper chamber (117 seats; members are chosen by state
assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's
Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve
five-year terms)
elections: regional and national popular elections were held in May
and June 1995 (next to be held NA May 2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - EPRDF 483, regional
political groupings 46, independents 8; note - 11 seats unconfirmed
note: many opposition groups, including the Oromo Liberation Front,
boycotted the election

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court; the president and vice
president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime
minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for
other federal judges, the prime minister submits candidates selected
by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council to the House of
People's Representatives for appointment

Political parties and leaders: All-Amhara People's Organization or
AAPO ; Coalition of Alternative Forces for Peace
and Democracy or CAFPD ; Ethiopian Democratic Union or EDU
; Ethiopian Movement for Democracy, Peace, and Unity or
EMDPU ; Ethiopian National Democratic Party or ENDP
; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front or EPRDF ; Oromo Liberation Front or
OLF ; dozens of small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Southern Ethiopia People's
Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnically based groups have
formed since the defeat of the former MENGISTU regime in 1991,
including several Islamic militant groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-2281
FAX: (202) 328-7950

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tibor P. NAGY
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: (1) 550666
FAX: (1) 551328

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from
the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the
three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and
the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African
countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African
colors

@Ethiopia:Economy

Economy - overview: Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture, which
accounts for half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment.
The agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought and
poor cultivation practices, and as many as 4.6 million people need
food assistance annually. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy,
and Ethiopia earned $267 million in 1999 by exporting 105,000 metric
tons. According to current estimates, coffee contributes 10% of
Ethiopia's GDP. More than 15 million people (25% of the population)
derive their livelihood from the coffee sector. Other exports include
live animals, hides, gold, and qat. In December 1999, Ethiopia signed
a $1.4 billion joint venture deal to develop a huge natural gas field
in the Somali Regional State. The war with Eritrea has forced the
government to spend scarce resources on the military and forced the
government to scale back ambitious development plans. Foreign
investment has declined significantly. Government taxes imposed in
late 1999 to raise money for the war will depress an already weak
economy. The war has forced the government to improve roads and other
parts of the previously neglected infrastructure, but only certain
regions of the nation have benefited.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $33.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $560 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 46%
industry: 12%
services: 42% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%,
government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1 billion
expenditures: $1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415
million (FY96/97)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.36 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 7.35%
hydro: 89.34%
nuclear: 0%
other: 3.31% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.265 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane,
potatoes; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $420 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: coffee, gold, leather products, oilseeds

Exports - partners: Germany 22%, Japan 12%, Italy 9%, UK 5% (1997
est.)

Imports: $1.25 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum
products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners: Italy 10%, US 9%, Japan 8%, Jordan 5% (1997 est.)

Debt - external: $10 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $367 million (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of period) - 8.2 (January
2000), 7.5030 (1998), 6.8640 (1997), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995)
note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to that
date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 365,000 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1999)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate
for government use
domestic: open wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the
HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the
national trunk service
international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1
Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 11.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1999)

Televisions: 320,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Ethiopia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to
revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals; since
May 1998 Ethiopia has expended considerable effort to repair and
maintain the lines

Highways:
total: 28,500 km
paved: 4,275 km
unpaved: 24,225 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was by agreement
with Eritrea using the ports of Assab and Massawa; since the border
dispute with Eritrea flared, Ethiopia has used the port of Djibouti
for nearly all of its imports

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,915 GRT/112,634 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, container 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 85 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 74
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 19 (1999 est.)

@Ethiopia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police, Militia
note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the
independence of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in
Eritrean possession and ships which belonged to the former Ethiopian
Navy and based at Djibouti have been sold

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 14,184,072 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,392,677 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 686,801 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $138 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY98/99)

@Ethiopia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary
with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute
with Somalia over the Ogaden; dispute over alignment of boundary with
Eritrea led to armed conflict in 1998, which is still unresolved
despite arbitration efforts

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (chat)
for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia

______________________________________________________________________



EUROPA ISLAND

@Europa Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28 sq km
land: 28 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low and flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a small French military garrison (July 2000 est.)

@Europa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Europa Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Europa Island:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Europa Island:Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station

@Europa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Europa Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Europa Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________



FALKLAND ISLANDS

______________________________________________________________________



FAROE ISLANDS

@Faroe Islands:Introduction

Background: The population of the Faroe Islands is largely descended
from Viking settlers who arrived in the 9th century. The islands have
been connected politically to Denmark since the 14th century. A high
degree of self-government was attained in 1948.

@Faroe Islands:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and
the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to
Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 1,399 sq km
land: 1,399 sq km
water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams)

Area - comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,117 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish, whales, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 94% (1996)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one
uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically
located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic;
precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands

@Faroe Islands:People

Population: 45,296 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 5,233; female 5,163)
15-64 years: 63% (male 15,270; female 13,382)
65 years and over: 14% (male 2,788; female 3,460) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.83% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.58 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.43 years
male: 74.96 years
female: 81.92 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective: Faroese

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
note: similar to Denmark proper

@Faroe Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Faroe Islands
local long form: none
local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing
overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1948

Government type: NA

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark;



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