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self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing
overseas administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bente KLINTE, chief administrative
officer (since NA)
head of government: Prime Minister Anfinn KALLSBERG (since 9 May 1998)
cabinet: Landsstyri elected by the Faroese Parliament
elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by
the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the party
that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister by the
Faroese Parliament; election last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held
NA 2002)
election results: Anfinn KALLSBERG elected prime minister; percent of
parliamentary vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32
seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis
from the seven constituencies to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held by NA July 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.8%,
People's Party 21.3%, Social Democratic Party 21.9%, Coalition Party
(Union Party, Labor Front, Home Rule Party) 18%; seats by party -
Republican Party 8, People's Party 8, Social Democratic Party 7,
Coalition Party 6, other parties 3
note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on 11
March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002); results - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - Social Democratic Party 1, People's Party
1

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Center Party ;
Christian People's Party ; Home Rule Party
; Labor Front ; People's Party [Oli
BRECKMANN]; Republican Party ; Social Democratic
Party ; The Faroese Party ;
Union Party

International organization participation: NC, NIB

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: After the severe economic troubles of the early
1990s, brought on by a drop in the vital fish catch, the Faroe Islands
have come back in the last few years, with unemployment down to 5% in
mid-1998. Nevertheless, the almost total dependence on fishing means
the economy remains extremely vulnerable. The Faroese hope to broaden
their economic base by building new fish-processing plants. Oil finds
close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits in the immediate
area, which may lay the basis to sustained economic prosperity. The
Faroese are supported by a substantial annual subsidy from Denmark.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $700 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 16%
services: 64% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 20,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: largely engaged in fishing,
manufacturing, transportation, commerce

Unemployment rate: 5% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $467 million
expenditures: $468 million, including capital expenditures of $11
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 186 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 53.76%
hydro: 45.7%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.54% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 173 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon,
other fish

Exports: $362 million (f.o.b., 1995)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 92%, animal feedstuffs,
transport equipment (ships)

Exports - partners: Denmark 31%, UK 25%, Germany 9%, France 7%, Spain
6%, US 2% (1996)

Imports: $315.6 million (c.i.f., 1995)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 17.0%,
consumer goods 33%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 26.9%, fuels
11.4%, fish and salt 6.7%

Imports - partners: Denmark 33%, Norway 18%, UK 8% Germany 9%, Sweden
5%, US 2% (1996)

Debt - external: $767 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $150 million (annual subsidy from Denmark)
(1995)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 7.336 (January 2000),
6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1966), 5.602 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Faroe Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 22,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,558 (1995)

Telephone system: good international communications; good domestic
facilities
domestic: digitalization was to have been completed in 1998
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic
submarine cable linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 26,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (plus 51 low-power repeaters)
(September 1995)

Televisions: 15,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Faroe Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 458 km
paved: 450 km
unpaved: 8 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik, Fuglafjorour

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,853 GRT/13,481 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Faroe Islands:Military

Military branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark

@Faroe Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



FIJI

@Fiji:Introduction

Background: Fiji became independent in 1970, after nearly a century as
a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military
coups in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as
dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers
brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). A 1990
constitution favored native Melanesian control of Fiji, but led to
heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic
difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority.
Amendments enacted in 1997 made the constitution more equitable. Free
and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an
Indo-Fijian. Fiji has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping
missions in various parts of the world.

@Fiji:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 18,270 sq km
land: 18,270 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 65%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are
inhabited

@Fiji:People

Population: 832,494 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 141,779; female 136,212)
15-64 years: 63% (male 263,127; female 262,686)
65 years and over: 4% (male 13,405; female 15,285) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.41% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 23.48 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.94 years
male: 65.54 years
female: 70.45 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: Fijian 51% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian
admixture), Indian 44%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas
Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a
Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.6%
male: 93.8%
female: 89.3% (1995 est.)

@Fiji:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands
conventional short form: Fiji

Data code: FJ

Government type: republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared
Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
July 1990; amended 25 July 1997 to allow nonethnic Fijians greater say
in government and to make multiparty government mandatory; entered
into force 28 July 1998; note - the May 1999 election was the first
test of the amended constitution and introduced open voting - not
racially prescribed - for the first time at the national level

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (acting president
since 15 December 1993, president since 12 January 1994); Vice
President Ratu Josefa Iloilo ULUIVUDA (since 18 January 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Mahendra CHAUDHRY (since 18 May
1999); Deputy Prime Ministers Tupeni BABA (since NA 1999) and Adi
Kuini Vuikaba SPEED (since NA 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
note: there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president
on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which
consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly
system
elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a
five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA elected president; percent of
Great Council of Chiefs vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (32
seats; 14 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs, nine appointed by
the prime minister, eight appointed by the leader of the opposition,
and one appointed by the council of Rotuma) and the House of
Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved
for ethnic Indians, three reserved for other ethnic groups, one
reserved for the Rotuman constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji,
and 25 open; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 11 May 1999 (next to
be held NA May 2004)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - Fiji Labor Party 37, others 34

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Christian Fellowship Party (Veitokani
ni Lewenivanua Vakarisito Party) or VLV (primarily Methodist Fijian)
; Conservative Party of Fiji or CPF ; Fiji
Conservative Party or FCP ; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim)
; Fiji Indian Congress Party ; Fiji Indian
Liberal Party ; Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra
CHAUDHRY]; Fijian Association Party or FAP ; Fijian
Nationalist Party or FNP ; Fijian Political Party
or SVT (primarily Fijian) ; Four Corners
Party ; General Electors' Association ;
General Voters Party or GVP ; National Federation Party or
NFP (primarily Indian) ; National Unity Party [Apisai
TORA]
note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
Congress or ANC merged with the Fijian Association or FA; the
remaining members of the ANC have renamed their party the General
Electors' Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OPCW,
PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador "Ratu" Napolioni MASIREWA
chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (202) 337-8320
FAX: (202) 337-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Osman SIDDIQUE
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: 314466
FAX: 300081

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half
of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field
quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane,
a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji:Economy

Economy - overview: Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish
resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island
economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports
and a growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign
exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity.
Roughly 300,000 tourists visit each year, including thousands of
Americans following the start of regularly scheduled non-stop air
service from Los Angeles. Fiji's growth slowed in 1997 because the
sugar industry suffered from low world prices and rent disputes
between farmers and landowners. Drought in 1998 further damaged the
sugar industry, but its recovery in 1999 contributed to robust GDP
growth. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain
property rights.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16.5%
industry: 25.5%
services: 58% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 235,000

Labor force - by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners
18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $540.65 million
expenditures: $742.65 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber,
small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1995)

Electricity - production: 550 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 20%
hydro: 80%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 512 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice,
sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish

Exports: $393 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: sugar 32%, clothing, gold, processed fish,
lumber

Exports - partners: Australia 34%, UK 18%, other Pacific island
countries 11%, US 11%, NZ 5%, Japan 5% (1997)

Imports: $612 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum
products, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: Australia 45%, NZ 15%, Japan 7%, US 5%, Singapore
4% (1997)

Debt - external: $213 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $40.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.9654 (January 2000),
1.9696 (1999), 1.9868 (1998), 1.4437 (1997), 1.4033 (1996), 1.4063
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Fiji:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 65,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,300 (1998)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone,
telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications
center
domestic: NA
international: access to important cable links between US and Canada
as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 500,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 21,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Fiji:Transportation

Railways:
total: 597 km; note - belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar
Corporation
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 3,440 km
paved: 1,692 km
unpaved: 1,748 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,870 GRT/14,787 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 25 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 17 (1999 est.)

@Fiji:Military

Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes
ground and naval forces)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 223,496 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 123,051 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 9,426 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $24 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY98)

@Fiji:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



FINLAND

@Finland:Introduction

Background: Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and by
Russia from 1809, Finland finally won its independence in 1917. During
World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend
off invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany. In the subsequent half
century, the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a
farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per
capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the
European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro
system at its initiation in January 1999.

@Finland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 337,030 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 6 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 76%
other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and
power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from
industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens
wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost
national capital on European continent; population concentrated on
small southwestern coastal plain

@Finland:People

Population: 5,167,486 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 478,497; female 459,646)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,747,738; female 1,712,058)
65 years and over: 15% (male 295,177; female 474,370) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.8 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.73 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.41 years
male: 73.74 years
female: 81.2 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Lapp 0.11%, Roma 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other
1%

Languages: Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small
Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)



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