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male: NA%
female: NA%


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani,
Lappi, Oulun Laani

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the
president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006);
prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority
party by the president after parliamentary elections
election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote -
Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esco AHO (Kesk) 48.4%
note: government coalition - SFP, Kok, Leftist Alliance (People's
Democratic Union and Democratic Alternative), SFP, and Green Union

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 21 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 22.9%, Kesk 22.5%,
Kok 21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.9%, SFP 5.1%, Green Union
7.2%, SKL 4.2%; seats by party - SDP 51, Kesk 48, Kok 46, Leftist
Alliance (Communist) 20, SFP 11, Green Union 11, SKL 10, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus, judges appointed by
the president

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk ;
Ecological Party or EPV ; Finnish Christian Union or
SKL ; Green Union ; Leftist Alliance
(Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic
Alternative ; Liberal People's Party or LKP [Pekka
RYTILA]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Sauli
NIINISTO]; Rural Party or SMP ; Social Democratic
Party or SDP ; Swedish People's Party or SFP [(Johan)
Ole NORRBACK]; Young Finns

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist Workers Party [Timo
LAHDENMAKI]; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Communist
Party-Unity ; Finnish Pensioners Party

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jaakko Tapani LAAJAVA
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 298-5800
FAX: (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric EDELMAN
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: (9) 171931
FAX: (9) 174681

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)


Economy - overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK,
France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing -
principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and
electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling more
than one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland
depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for
manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development
is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products.
Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation
for the rural population. The economy has come back from the recession
of 1990-92, which had been caused by economic overheating, depressed
foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between
Finland and the former Soviet Union. Rapidly increasing integration
with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the
euro monetary system (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the
economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2000 will
probably be at the same level as in 1999, enough to continue the
decline in unemployment from its current high level.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $108.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 32%
services: 63% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.533 million

Labor force - by occupation: public services 32%, industry 22%,
commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%,
agriculture and forestry 8%, transport and communications 8%,
construction 6%

Unemployment rate: 10% (1999 est.)

revenues: $41 billion
expenditures: $41 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper
refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (1999)

Electricity - production: 75.299 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 41.62%
hydro: 19.59%
nuclear: 27.59%
other: 11.2% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 79.278 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 300 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 9.55 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle;

Exports: $43 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals;
timber, paper, and pulp

Exports - partners: EU 56% (Germany 12%, UK 9%, Sweden 9%, France 5%),
US 7%, Russia 6%, Japan (1998)

Imports: $30.7 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile
yarn and fabrics, fodder grains

Imports - partners: EU 60% (Germany 15%, Sweden 12%, UK 7%), US 8%,
Russia 7%, Japan 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $379 million (1997)

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.3441 (1998), 5.1914 (1997), 4.5936 (1996),
4.3667 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 5.94573 markkaa per euro; the euro will replace the
local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 2.861 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,162,574 (1997)

Telephone system: modern system with excellent service
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular net
take provide of domestic needs
international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to
Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares
the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 7.7 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 130 (plus 385 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.2 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 36 (1999)


total: 5,865 km
broad gauge: 5,865 km 1.524-m gauge (2,192 km electrified; 480 km
double- or multiple-track) (1998)

total: 77,895 km
paved: 49,853 km (including 473 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,042 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable
for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu,
Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
total: 101 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,185,966 GRT/1,153,089
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 6, passenger 1,
petroleum tanker 11, rail car carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off 38,
short-sea passenger 12 (1999 est.)

Airports: 157 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 69
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 88
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 82 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,262,526 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,041,795 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 34,651 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.8 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY98)

@Finland:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none




Background: Although ultimately a victor in World Wars I and II,
France suffered extensive losses in its empire, wealth, manpower, and
rank as a dominant nation-state. Since 1958, it has constructed a
presidential democracy resistant to the instabilities experienced in
earlier parliamentary democracies. In recent years, its reconciliation
and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic
integration of Europe, including the advent of the euro in January
1999. Today, France is at the forefront of European states seeking to
exploit the momentum of monetary union to advance the creation of a
more unified and capable European defense and security apparatus.


Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the
Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

total: 547,030 sq km
land: 545,630 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km
note: includes only metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,889 km
border countries: Andorra 56.6 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km,
Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km,
Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and
hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 16,300 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding; avalanches

Environment - current issues: some forest damage from acid rain (major
forest damage occurred as a result of severe December 1999 windstorm);
air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
from urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest West European nation; occasional strong,
cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral


Population: 59,329,691 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,719,502; female 5,448,608)
15-64 years: 65% (male 19,345,269; female 19,322,902)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,849,783; female 5,643,627) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.27 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.14 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.76 years
male: 74.85 years
female: 82.89 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African,
Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North
African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1980 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique Francaise
local short form: France

Data code: FR

Government type: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region);
Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the
"territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into
96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments
(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the overseas
territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis
and Futuna
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht
Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 June 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
suggestion of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 23 April and 7 May 1995 (next to be held by May
2002); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and
appointed by the president
election results: Jacques CHIRAC elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC (RPR) 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN (PS) 47.36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (321 seats - 296 for metropolitan France, 13 for
overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals
abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to
serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are
elected by popular vote under a single-member majoritarian system to
serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held
September 2001); National Assembly - last held 25 May-1 June 1997
(next to be held NA May 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - RPR 99, UDC 52, DL 47, PS 78, PCF 16, other 29; National
Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 245, RPR
140, UDF 109, PCF 37, PRS 13, MEI 8, MDC 7, LDI-MPF 1, FN 1, various
left 9, various right 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation, judges
are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of
the Judiciary; Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel,
three members appointed by the president, three members appointed by
the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the
president of the Senate; Council of State or Conseil d'Etat

Political parties and leaders: Citizens Movement or MdC [Jean Pierre
CHEVENEMENT]; Democratic Force or FD ; Ecology Gereration
or GE ; French Communist Party or PCF ;
Independent Ecological Movement or MEI ; Left
Radical Party or PRG (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and
the Left Radical Movement or MRG) ; Liberal
Democracy or DL (originally Republican Party or PR) ;
Movement for France or LDI-MPF ; National Center
of Independents and Peasants or CNIP ; National Front or
FN ; National Front-National Movement [Bruno
MEGRET]; Popular Party for French Democracy or PPDF [Herve de
CHARETTE]; Radical Party or RRRS ; Rally for the
Republic or RPR ; Reformers' Movement or MR
; Socialist Party or PS ; The
Greens (Les Verts) ; The Right (La Droite)
; Union for French Democracy or UDF (coalition of UDC,
FD, RRRS, PPDF) ; Union of the Center or UDC [leader

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); independent labor union or Force Ouvriere, 1
million members (est.); independent white-collar union or
Confederation Generale des Cadres, 340,000 members (claimed); National
Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais) or
CNPF or Patronat; Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, about 800,000 members

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia
Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA
(associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G-
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol,
NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francois V. BUJON DE L'ESTANG
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (202) 944-6000
FAX: (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Felix G. ROHATYN
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX: (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design
and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of
Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official
flag for all French dependent areas


Economy - overview: France's economy combines modern capitalistic
methods with extensive, but declining, government intervention. The
government retains considerable influence over key segments of each
sector, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and
telecommunication firms. It has been gradually relaxing its control
over these sectors since the early 1990s. The government is slowly
selling off holdings in France Telecom, in Air France, and in the
insurance, banking, and defense industries. Meanwhile, large tracts of
fertile land, the application of modern technology, and subsidies have
combined to make France the leading agricultural producer in Western
Europe. Persistently high unemployment will continue to pose a major
problem for the government; a 35-hour work week is being introduced.
France has shied away from cutting exceptionally generous social
welfare benefits or the enormous state bureaucracy, preferring to pare
defense spending and raise taxes to keep the deficit down. France
joined 10 other EU members to launch the euro on 1 January 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.373 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 26.1%
services: 70.6% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24.9% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 25.4 million (1994)

Labor force - by occupation: services 69%, industry 26%, agriculture
5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

revenues: $325 billion
expenditures: $360 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining; textiles, food processing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 480.972 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 10.77%
hydro: 12.45%
nuclear: 76.24%
other: 0.54% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 389.254 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 62 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 3.95 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $304.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
chemicals, iron and steel products; agricultural products, textiles
and clothing

Exports - partners: EU 63% (Germany 16%, UK 10%, Italy 9%, Spain 9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 8%), US 7% (1998)

Imports: $280.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, chemicals;
agricultural products

Imports - partners: EU 62% (Germany 17%, Italy 10%, Belgium-Luxembourg
8%, UK 8%, Spain 7%), US 9% (1998)

Debt - external: $117.6 billion (1996 est.)

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