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@Angola:People

Population: 10,145,267 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 2,215,706; female 2,172,106)
15-64 years: 54% (male 2,792,313; female 2,692,790)
65 years and over: 3% (male 124,404; female 147,948) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.15% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 46.89 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 25.01 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 195.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 38.31 years
male: 37.11 years
female: 39.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.52 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
(mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
(1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September
1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since January
1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without
opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in
Angola's first multiparty elections 28-29 September 1992, the last
elections to be held (next to be held NA)
election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making
a run-off election necessary between him and second-place finisher
Jonas SAVIMBI (40.1% of the vote); the run-off was not held and
SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3,
others 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the
Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia
de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or
FNLA ; National
Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA ,
largest opposition party engaged in years of armed resistance before
joining the current unity government in April 1997; Popular Movement
for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA ruling
party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed
leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the
Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento
BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
chancery: 1615 M Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (202) 785-1156
FAX: (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph G. SULLIVAN
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; pouch:
American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-2550
telephone: (2) 345-481, 346-418
FAX: (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within
half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and
sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Economy - overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of a
quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant
natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest.
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the
population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to
the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and 90% of exports.
Notwithstanding the signing of a peace accord in November 1994,
violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers
are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the
country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich
resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and
large oil deposits - Angola will need to implement the peace agreement
and reform government policies. Despite the increase in the pace of
civil warfare in late 1998, the economy grew by an estimated 4% in
1999. The government introduced new currency denominations in 1999,
including a 1 and 5 kwanza note. Expanded oil production brightens
prospects for 2000, but internal strife discourages investment outside
of the petroleum sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,030 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 53%
services: 34% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 270% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services
15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment
affecting more than half the population (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $928 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish
processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.886 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 24.97%
hydro: 75.03%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.754 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock;
forest products; fish

Exports: $5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum
products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners: US 63%, Benelux 9%, China, Chile, France (1998)

Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles
and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners: Portugal 20%, US 17%, South Africa 10%, Spain,
Brazil, France (1998)

Debt - external: $10.5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $493.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 577,304 (January 2000),
2,790,706 (1999), 392,824 (1998), 229,040 (1997), 128,029 (1996),
2,750 (1995); note - beginning in June 1998, the official rate is
determined weekly in accordance with a crawling peg scheme

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,994 (1995)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and
business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 34, FM 7, shortwave 9 (1999)

Radios: 630,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1999)

Televisions: 150,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,952 km (inland, much of the track is unusable because of land
mines still in place from the civil war)
narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge (1997)

Highways:
total: 76,626 km
paved: 19,156 km
unpaved: 57,470 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe,
Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,305 GRT/63,067 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, petroleum tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 249 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 217
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 96
under 914 m: 83 (1999 est.)

@Angola:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,429,842 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,221,277 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 101,434 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.2 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 25% (FY97/98)

@Angola:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine
and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states

______________________________________________________________________



ANGUILLA

@Anguilla:Introduction

Background: Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650,
Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th
century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts
and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years
after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
arrangement was formally recognized in 1980 with Anguilla becoming a
separate British dependency.

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 91 sq km
land: 91 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes
cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution
system

@Anguilla:People

Population: 11,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 1,565; female 1,519)
15-64 years: 67% (male 4,040; female 3,839)
65 years and over: 7% (male 369; female 465) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 15.34 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 19.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.11 years
male: 73.22 years
female: 79.09 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 12 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 95%
female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
elected members of the House of Assembly
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7
elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members and 2 appointed;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 March 1999 (next to be held 10 March 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANA
2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP
; Anguilla National Alliance or ANA ;
Anguilla United Party or AUP

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins
in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue
wavy water below

@Anguilla:Economy

Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the
economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster
fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially
the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects
of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996. Increased
activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the
construction sector, contributed to economic growth in 1997-98.
Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the
offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial
services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term,
prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and,
therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations
as well as favorable weather conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $88 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,900 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)

Labor force - by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction
18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $20.4 million
expenditures: $23.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.8
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, vegetables;
cattle raising

Exports: $4.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $57.6 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $3.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Anguilla:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: modern internal telephone system
international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
(Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 279 km
paved: 253 km
unpaved: 26 km (1998 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Anguilla:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Anguilla:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 14 million sq km
land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
ice-covered) (est.)
note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America,
and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of
Europe

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km
note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see the Disputes - international entry

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along
the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
ranges up to 5,140 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and
parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along
about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11%
of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Southern Ocean 0 m
highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along
the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment - current issues: in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that
the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27
million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased
ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish,
an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was
shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants

Geography - note: the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and
driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the
surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an
equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally
staffed research stations
note: approximately 29 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty,
send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round research on
the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons
doing and supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands
south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the
Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000
in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's
crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters
of the treaty region; Summer (January) population - 3,687 total;
Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16,
Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60,
Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway
40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden
20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); Winter (July) population - 964 total;
Argentina 165, Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France
33, Germany 9, India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20,
Russia 102, South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round
stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4,
China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1,



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