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South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1,
Spain 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); Summer-only
stations - 32 total; Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7,
Germany 1, India 1, Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5
(1998-99); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have
numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary
facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2000


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antarctica

Data code: AY

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty,
signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961,
establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings -
the 23rd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Peru in May
1999. At the end of 1999, there were 44 treaty member nations: 27
consultative and 17 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include
the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national
territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and
some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to
do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in
parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full
consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was
an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998)
China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India
(1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990),
Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden
(1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with
year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988),
Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965),
Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987),
Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland
(1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999). Article 1
- area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such
as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and
equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful
purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and
cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information
and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international
agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish
territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the
treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or
disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty
all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south; Article
7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations,
and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the
introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows
for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states;
Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member
nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any
country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 -
disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or,
ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding,
interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other
agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative
meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the
Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the
Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation
of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources
agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; the
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this
agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment
through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora,
environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected
areas; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources
except scientific research.

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the
taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous
plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific
areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
and one year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce,
Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities.
Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires
expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the
Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit
Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 306-1031, or see their
website at


Economy - overview: No economic activity is conducted at present,
except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based
abroad. Antarctic fisheries in 1998-99 (1 July-30 June) reported
landing 119,898 metric tons. Unregulated fishing landed five to six
times more than the regulated fishery, and allegedly illegal fishing
in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and
Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. A total of 10,013 tourists
visited in the 1998-99 summer, up from the 9,604 who visited the
previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 16 commercial
(nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made 116 trips during
the summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.


Telephones - main lines in use: 0 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (American Forces Antarctic
Network-McMurdo) (1999)

Televisions: several hundred at McMurdo Sound

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA


Ports and harbors: McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03
W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under
"Legal System"); offshore anchorage

Airports: 18
note: 27 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the
Antarctic Treaty, have landing facilities for either helicopters
and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two
additional air facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27
stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or
compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of
these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km
in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km
in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited
to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft,are available at another
15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are
between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in
length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length;
airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations
resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do
not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective
governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for
landing (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)


Military - note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing
of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or
equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

@Antarctica:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see
Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some
overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie
Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and
UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial
claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US
reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the
sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west



@Antigua and Barbuda:Introduction

Background: The islands of Antigua and Barbuda became an independent
state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. Some 3,000
refugees fleeing a volcanic eruption on nearby Montserrat have settled
in Antigua and Barbuda since 1995.

@Antigua and Barbuda:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

total: 442 sq km (Antigua 281 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some
higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern
because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered
by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall
to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Antigua and Barbuda:People

Population: 66,422 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 9,414; female 9,098)
15-64 years: 67% (male 22,199; female 22,341)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,424; female 1,946) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.73% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.99 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.46 years
male: 68.19 years
female: 72.84 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant, some Roman

Languages: English (official), local dialects

definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1960 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by
the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to
be held NA March 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP
12, UPP 4, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia) (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement
or ACLM ; Antigua Labor Party or ALP ;
Barbuda People's Movement or BPM ; Progressive Labor
Movement or PLM ; United National Democratic Party or UNDP
; United Progressive Party or UPP , a
coalition of three opposition political parties - UNDP, ACLM, and PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union
or ATLU ; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: (202) 362-5211
FAX: (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US
Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on
the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands
of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the
black band

@Antigua and Barbuda:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism continues to be the dominant activity in
the economy accounting directly or indirectly for more than half of
GDP. In 1999 the budding offshore financial sector was seriously hurt
by financial sanctions imposed by the US and UK as a result of the
loosening of its money-laundering controls. The government has made
efforts to comply with international demands in order to get the
sanctions lifted. The dual island nation's agricultural production is
mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by
the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of
higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises
enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding,
handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth
in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the
industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about
one-third of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $524 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 12.5%
services: 83.5% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 30,000

Labor force - by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture
11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)

revenues: $122.6 million
expenditures: $141.2 million, including capital expenditures of $17.3
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 90 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 84 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports: $38 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food
and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%

Exports - partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and
Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $330 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%

Debt - external: $357 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Antigua and Barbuda:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 20,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands
Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transportation

total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane)

total: 250 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 607 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,528,944 GRT/4,590,590
ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 385, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk
2, container 149, liquified gas 3, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated
cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off 28 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 10 ships, Slovenia
2, and Cyprus 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics
bound for the US and Europe; more significant as a
drug-money-laundering center



@Arctic Ocean:Introduction

Background: A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic
Organization delimited a fifth world ocean from the southern portions
of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The new ocean
extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south
latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Arctic
Ocean remains the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean).

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

total: 14.056 million sq km
note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges
may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice
locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing
from October to May

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include
walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to
recover from disruptions or damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea
(northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait);
strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine
link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating
research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in
March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow
cover lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

@Arctic Ocean:Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation
of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and

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