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ships by type: bulk 124, cargo 69, chemical tanker 14, combination
bulk 1, combination ore/oil 4, container 15, liquified gas 10,
passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 75, short-sea passenger 2,
specialized tanker 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 346 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 238
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 49
1,524 to 2,437 m: 84
914 to 1,523 m: 74
under 914 m: 19 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 108
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 47
under 914 m: 55 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 16 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force,
various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security
Force, Assam Rifles, and Rashtriya Rifles)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 274,679,455 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 161,223,332 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,759,607 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $10.055 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY00)

@India:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with China in dispute; status of
Kashmir with Pakistan; water-sharing problems with Pakistan over the
Indus River (Wular Barrage); a portion of the boundary with Bangladesh
is indefinite; dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty

Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of licit opium for the
pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is
diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country
for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit
producer of hashish and methaqualone



@Indian Ocean:Introduction

Background: A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic
Organization delimited a fifth world ocean from the southern portions
of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The new ocean
extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south
latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Indian
Ocean remains the third-largest of the world's five oceans (after the
Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Southern Ocean
and Arctic Ocean).

@Indian Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, the Southern Ocean, Asia, and

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 80 00 E

Map references: World

total: 68.556 million sq km
note: includes Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great
Australian Bight, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Mozambique Channel,
Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, and other tributary water

Area - comparative: about 5.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 66,526 km

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon
(June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and
October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in
the southern Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular
system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of
surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric
pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in
the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents,
while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air
results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and
currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean
Ridge, and Ninetyeast Ridge

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Java Trench -7,258 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea,
Persian Gulf, and Red Sea

Geography - note: major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of
Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the
Lombok Strait

@Indian Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
Codes appendix

@Indian Ocean:Economy

Economy - overview: The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes
connecting the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the
Americas. It carries a particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and
petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and
Indonesia. Its fish are of great and growing importance to the
bordering countries for domestic consumption and export. Fishing
fleets from Russia, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the
Indian Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of
hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia,
Iran, India, and western Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's
offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich
in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are actively exploited
by bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia,
Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

@Indian Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Calcutta (India), Chennai (Madras; India), Colombo
(Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne
(Australia), Mumbai (Bombay; India), Richards Bay (South Africa)

@Indian Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)




Background: The world's largest archipelago, Indonesia achieved
independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include:
implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting a
transition to a popularly elected government after years of rule by
dictators, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption among the
Chinese-dominated business class, dealing with alleged human rights
violations by the military, and resolving growing pressures for some
form of autonomy or independence in certain regions such as Aceh and
Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999 a provincial referendum for independence
was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence
followed by Indonesia's national legislature, and the name East Timor
was provisionally adopted. The independent status of East Timor has
yet to be formally established.


Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and
the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,602 km
border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber,
bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 62%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis,
earthquakes, volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and
haze from forest fires

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life

Geography - note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited);
straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes
from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean


Population: 224,784,210 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.57% (male 34,932,102; female 33,783,603)
15-64 years: 64.96% (male 72,889,994; female 73,124,821)
65 years and over: 4.47% (male 4,413,268; female 5,640,422) (2000

Population growth rate: 1.63% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.31 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 42.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.96 years
male: 65.61 years
female: 70.42 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.61 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal
Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%,
Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay),
English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular -
propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular -
daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus
ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi,
Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan
Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa
Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi
Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera
Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - there may be a new
province named Maluku Utara
note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for
independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor
Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national
legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for
the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur until such
time as the entity's independent status is formally established

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December
1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October
1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president selected by vote of the
People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; selection last
held 20 October 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)
election results: Abdurrahman WAHID selected president by vote of the
People's Consultative Assembly, receiving 373 votes to 313 votes for
MEGAWATI; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri selected vice president by vote of the
People's Consultative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan
Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38
are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA June 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar
20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by
party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan
Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 200 indirectly selected members;
it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president
and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are
appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB
; Development Unity Party or PPP
(federation of former Islamic parties) ; Golkar
; Indonesia Democracy Party or PDI
(federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties) [Budi
HARDJONO, chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P
; National Awakening Party or PKB
; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS,

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Maleeha LODHI
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (202) 775-5200
FAX: (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert GELBARD
embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520
telephone: (21) 344-2211
FAX: (21) 386-2259
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the
flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red


Economy - overview: The Indonesian economy stabilized in 1999,
following the sharp contraction and high inflation of 1998. By
following tight monetary policy, the government reduced inflation from
over 70% in 1998 to 2% in 1999. Although interest rates spiked as high
as 70% in response to the monetary contraction, they fell rapidly to
the 10% to 15% range. The economy stopped its free-fall as GDP showed
some growth in the second half of 1999, although GDP for the year as a
whole showed no growth. The government managed to recapitalize a
handful of private banks and has begun recapitalizing the state-owned
banking sector. New lending, however, remains almost unavailable as
banks continue to be wary of issuing new debt in an environment where
little progress has been made in restructuring the huge burden of
outstanding debts. IMF payments were suspended late in 1999 as the
result of evidence that a private bank had illegally funneled payments
it received from the government to one of the political parties. The
government has forecast growth of 3.8% for FY00/01. The spread of
sectarian violence and continuing dissatisfaction with the pace of
bank and debt restructuring will make it difficult for Indonesia to
attract the private investment necessary to achieve this goal.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $610 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 35%
services: 44% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 30.3% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 88 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45%, trade, restaurant, and
hotel 19%, manufacturing 11%, transport and communications 5%,
construction 4% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 15%-20% (1998 est.)

revenues: $25.4 billion (of which $6 billion is from international
financial institutions)
expenditures: $25.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY99/00 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and
footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food;

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 73.13 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 88.19%
hydro: 8.39%
nuclear: 0%
other: 3.42% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 68.011 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber,
cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Exports: $48 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners: Japan 18%, EU 15%, US 14%, Singapore 13%, South
Korea 5%, Hong Kong 4%, China 4%, Taiwan 3% (1999 est.)

Imports: $24 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels,

Imports - partners: Japan 17%, US 13%, Singapore 10%, Germany 9%,
Australia 6%, South Korea 5%, Taiwan 3%, China 3% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $140 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $43 billion from IMF program and other
official external financing (1997-2000)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 7,278.8 (January
2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3
(1996), 2,248.6 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


Telephones - main lines in use: 3.291 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.2 million (1998)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net;
domestic satellite communications system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Radios: 31.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999)

Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (1999)


total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km
double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

total: 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km,
Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas
1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang,
Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine:
total: 586 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,676,875 GRT/3,700,864
ships by type: bulk 38, cargo 346, chemical tanker 9, container 19,
liquified gas 5, livestock carrier 1, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 13,
petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 11,
short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 5 (1999

Airports: 446 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 127
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 31 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 319
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 281 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 62,948,286 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 36,826,282 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,273,324 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY98/99)

@Indonesia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use;
possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle




Background: Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic
republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile.
Conservative clerical forces subsequently crushed westernizing liberal
elements. Militant Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on
4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88,
Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq over disputed
territory. The key current issue is how rapidly the country should
open up to the modernizing influences of the outside world.


Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf,
and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references: Middle East

total: 1.648 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper
432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan
909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline: 2,440 km
note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural prolongation
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the
Persian Gulf
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 27%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms;
earthquakes along western border and in the northeast

Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban
areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial
effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution
in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation


Population: 65,619,636 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 11,542,446; female 11,035,705)
15-64 years: 61% (male 20,151,083; female 19,879,432)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,592,753; female 1,418,217) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.83% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.29 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.45 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

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