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Inflation rate (consumer prices): 135% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.4 million (1989)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials,
food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 28.4 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 97.89%
hydro: 2.11%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 26.412 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates,
cotton; cattle, sheep

Exports: $12.7 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil

Exports - partners: Russia, France, China (1999)

Imports: $8.9 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: food, medicine, manufactures

Imports - partners: Russia, France, Egypt, Vietnam (1999)

Debt - external: $130 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $327.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 0.3109 (fixed official
rate since 1982); black market rate - Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 -
1,900 (December 1999), 1,815 (December 1998), 1,530 (December 1997),
3,000 (December 1995); subject to wide fluctuations

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Iraq:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 675,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication
facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been
rebuilt
domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio
relay links
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1
Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to
Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably
nonoperational

Radio broadcast stations: AM 19 (5 are inactive), FM 51, shortwave 4
(1998)

Radios: 4.85 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (1997)

Televisions: 1.75 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Iraq:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,032 km
standard gauge: 2,032 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 45,550 km
paved: 38,400 km
unpaved: 7,150 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in
use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for
shallow-draft watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by
shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Gulf war

Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas
1,360 km

Ports and harbors: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have
limited functionality

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 606,227 GRT/1,067,770 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
tanker 13, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 113 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 80
over 3,047 m: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 12 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 5 (1999 est.)

@Iraq:Military

Military branches: Army, Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air
Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Fedayeen Saddam

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,674,990 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 3,176,826 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 266,736 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Iraq:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations
in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling
outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border
demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and
sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq
formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been
spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993),
and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to
Bubiyan and Warbah islands although the government continues periodic
rhetorical challenges; dispute over water development plans by Turkey
for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

______________________________________________________________________



IRELAND

@Ireland:Introduction

Background: A failed 1916 Easter Monday Rebellion touched off several
years of guerrilla warfare that in 1921 resulted in independence from
the UK for the 26 southern counties; the six northern counties
(Ulster) remained part of Great Britain. In 1948 Ireland withdrew from
the British Commonwealth; it joined the European Community in 1973.
Irish governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and
have cooperated with Britain against terrorist groups. A peace
settlement for Northern Ireland, approved in 1998, has not yet been
implemented.

@Ireland:Geography

Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of
Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 70,280 sq km
land: 68,890 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 360 km
border countries: UK 360 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild
winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the
time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Carrauntoohil 1,041 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, barite, copper, gypsum,
limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 68%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes,
from agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Marine Life
Conservation, Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: strategic location on major air and sea routes
between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population
resides within 97 km of Dublin

@Ireland:People

Population: 3,797,257 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21.85% (male 425,795; female 403,777)
15-64 years: 66.83% (male 1,271,367; female 1,266,150)
65 years and over: 11.33% (male 185,913; female 244,255) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 14.51 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.14 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.81 years
male: 74.06 years
female: 79.74 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.91 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural)
adjective: Irish

Ethnic groups: Celtic, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 91.6%, Church of Ireland 2.5%, other 5.9%
(1998)

Languages: English is the language generally used, Irish (Gaelic)
spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98% (1981 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Ireland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ireland

Data code: EI

Government type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim,
Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon,
Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK by treaty)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 June 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination
by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 31 October 1997 (next to be held NA November 2004);
prime minister nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed
by the president
election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote -
Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%
note: government coalition - Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the
Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats - 49 elected by the universities
and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are
nominated by the prime minister; members serve five-year terms) and
the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are
elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to
serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA August 1997 (next to be held NA
2002); House of Representatives - last held 6 June 1997 (next to be
held NA 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - Fianna Fail 29,
Fine Gael 16, Labor Party 4, Progressive Democrats 4, others 7; seats
by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - Fianna Fail 76, Fine Gael 53, Labor Party 19,
Progressive Democrats 4, Democratic Left 4, Green Alliance 2, Sinn
Fein 1, independents 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president on
the advice of the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Ireland [Michael
O'RIORDAN]; Democratic Left ; Fianna Fail [Bertie
AHERN]; Fine Gael ; Green Alliance ;
Labor Party ; Progressive Democrats ; Sinn
Fein ; The Workers' Party

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD,
OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sean O'HUIGINN
chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 462-3939
FAX: (202) 232-5993
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael SULLIVAN
embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: (1) 668-7122
FAX: (1) 668-9946

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is
shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and
green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has
colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

@Ireland:Economy

Economy - overview: Ireland is a small, modern, trade-dependent
economy with growth averaging a robust 9% in 1995-99. Agriculture,
once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which
accounts for 39% of GDP and about 80% of exports and employs 28% of
the labor force. Although exports remain the primary engine for
Ireland's robust growth, the economy is also benefiting from a rise in
consumer spending and recovery in both construction and business
investment. Over the past decade, the Irish government has implemented
a series of national economic programs designed to curb inflation,
reduce government spending, and promote foreign investment. The
unemployment rate has been halved; job creation remains a primary
concern of government policy. Recent efforts have concentrated on
improving workers' qualifications and the education system. Ireland
joined in launching the euro currency system in January 1999 along
with 10 other EU nations. The construction and other sectors are
beginning to press against capacity, and growth is expected to drop in
2000, perhaps by 1 percentage point.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $73.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 39%
services: 56% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 10% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 27.3% (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (1999)

Labor force: 1.77 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 63%, industry 28%, agriculture
9% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $25.3 billion
expenditures: $20.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $2
billion (1999)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and
crystal; software

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 19.715 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 94.12%
hydro: 4.63%
nuclear: 0%
other: 1.25% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 18.415 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 100 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 180 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
beef, dairy products

Exports: $66 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals; live animals, animal products

Exports - partners: EU 68% (UK 22%, Germany 15%, France 8%), US 15%
(1998)

Imports: $44 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: data processing equipment, other machinery and
equipment, chemicals; petroleum and petroleum products, textiles,
clothing

Imports - partners: EU 54% (UK 31%, Germany 6%, France 5%), US 16%,
Japan 7%, Singapore 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $11 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $240 million (1999)

Currency: 1 Irish pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Irish pounds per US$1 - 0.9865 (January 2000), 0.9374
(1999), 0.7014 (1998), 0.6588 (1997), 0.6248 (1996), 0.6235 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Union introduced a common
currency the euro, which is now being used at a fixed rate of 0.787564
Irish pounds per euro; the euro has replaced the pound in many
financial and business transactions; it will replace the local
currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ireland:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1,642,541 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 941,775 (1999)

Telephone system: modern digital system using cable and microwave
radio relay
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 106, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2.55 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 10 (plus 36 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.47 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 14 (1999)

@Ireland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,947 km
broad gauge: 1,947 km 1.600-m gauge (38 km electrified; 485 km double
track) (1998)

Highways:
total: 92,500 km
paved: 87,043 km (including 115 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,457 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 700 km (limited for commercial traffic) (1998)

Pipelines: natural gas 225 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Arklow, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Foynes, Galway,
Limerick, New Ross, Waterford

Merchant marine:
total: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 100,639 GRT/115,793 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 27, container 2, short-sea passenger 1
(1999 est.)

Airports: 44 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 25 (1999 est.)

@Ireland:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Naval Service and Air Corps),
National Police (Garda Siochana)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 994,040 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 801,975 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 33,303 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $732 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY98)

@Ireland:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Northern Ireland issue with the UK (historic
peace agreement signed 10 April 1998); Rockall continental shelf
dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK
have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from
North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced
synthetic drugs; minor transshipment point for heroin and cocaine
destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



ISRAEL

@Israel:Introduction

Background: Following World War II, the British withdrew from their
mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and
Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the
Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the
deep tensions between the two sides. The territories occupied by
Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the Isreal country
profile, unless otherwise noted. In keeping with the framework
established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral
negotiations are being conducted between Israel and Palestinian
representatives (from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip)
and Israel and Syria, to achieve a permanent settlement. On 25 April
1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt
Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan
were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace.

@Israel:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Lebanon

Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 20,770 sq km
land: 20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,006 km
border countries: Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km,
Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central
mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 66% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer

Environment - current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh
water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air
pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution
from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and
pesticides

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography - note: there are 231 Israeli settlements and civilian land
use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights,
24 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (August 1999 est.)

@Israel:People

Population: 5,842,454
note: includes about 171,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, about
20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, about 6,500 in the Gaza
Strip, and about 172,000 in East Jerusalem (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 825,443; female 787,159)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,831,142; female 1,820,424)
65 years and over: 9% (male 248,695; female 329,591) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.67% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.32 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.22 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.57 years
male: 76.57 years
female: 80.67 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli

Ethnic groups: Jewish 80.1% (Europe/America-born 32.1%, Israel-born
20.8%, Africa-born 14.6%, Asia-born 12.6%), non-Jewish 19.9% (mostly
Arab) (1996 est.)

Religions: Jewish 80.1%, Muslim 14.6% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian
2.1%, other 3.2% (1996 est.)

Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab
minority, English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 97%
female: 93% (1992 est.)

@Israel:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el

Data code: IS

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Jerusalem
note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US,
like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz);
Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May 1948; note - Israel
declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar
and the holiday may occur in April or May

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948),
the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli



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