Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 56 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 56 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara,
Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane,
Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama,
Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modeled after European civil law system with
English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Yoshiro MORI (since 5 April 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the Diet designates the
prime minister; the constitution requires that the prime minister must
command a parliamentary majority, therefore, following legislative
elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority
coalition in the House of Representatives usually becomes prime
minister
note: on 3 April 2000, Prime Minister Keizo OBUCHI suffered a stroke
and was relieved of his duties; Chief Cabinet Secretary Mikio AOKI
became acting prime minister; on 5 April 2000, Yoshiro MORI was
elected prime minister by a vote in both houses of the Diet, receiving
137 out of 244 votes cast in the House of Councillors ans 335 out of
488 votes cast in the House of Representatives

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of
Councillors or Sangi-in (252 seats; one-half of the members elected
every three years - 76 seats of which are elected from the 47
multi-seat prefectural districts and 50 of which are elected from a
single nationwide list with voters casting ballots by party; members
elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives or Shugi-in (500 seats - 200 of which are elected from
11 regional blocks on a proportional representation basis and 300 of
which are elected from 300 single-seat districts; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Councillors - last held 12 July 1998 (next to be
held NA July 2001); House of Representatives - last held 20 October
1996 (next to be held by October 2000)
election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - LDP 102, DPJ 47, JCP 23, Komeito 22, SDP 13,
Liberal Party 12, independents 26, others 7; note - the distribution
of seats as of December 1999 is as follows - LDP 105, DPJ 57, Komeito
24, JCP 23, SDP 13, Liberal Party 12, independents 6, others 12; House
of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
LDP 240, NFP 142, DPJ 52, JCP 26, SDP 15, Sun Party 10, others 15;
note - the distribution of seats as of December 1999 is as follows -
LDP 267, DPJ 93, Komeito/Reform Club 48, Liberal Party 39, JCP 26, SDP
14, independents 9, others 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the
monarch after designation by the cabinet, all other justices are
appointed by the cabinet

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Yukio
HATOYAMA, leader, Tsutomu HATA, secretary general]; Japan Communist
Party or JCP ;
Komeito [Takenori KANZAKI, president, Tetsuzo FUYUSHIBA, secretary
general]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Yoshiro MORI, president,
Hiromu NONAKA, secretary general]; Liberal Party [Ichiro OZAWA,
president, Hirohisa FUJII, secretary general]; Reform Club [Tatsuo
OZAWA, leader, Katsuyuki ISHIDA, secretary general]; Social Democratic
Party or SDP [Takako DOI, chairperson, Sadao FUCHIGAMI, secretary
general]
note: subsequent to the last legislative elections, the New Frontier
Party or NFP and the Sun Party disbanded; in late 1997, the LP was
formed by former NFP members; the DPJ was formed by former members of
the SDP and Sakigake and, in April 1998, was joined by three
additional parties which had formed after the NFP disbanded; New Peace
Party and Komei merged to form Komeito in November 1998

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, Australia
Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO,
G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,
OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR,
UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Shunji YANAI
chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 238-6700
FAX: (202) 328-2187
consulate(s) general: Hagatna (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri),
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San
Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s): Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas S. FOLEY
embassy: 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420
mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 205, APO AP 96337-5004
telephone: (3) 3224-5000
FAX: (3) 3224-5856
consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya

Flag description: white with a large red disk (representing the sun
without rays) in the center

@Japan:Economy

Economy - overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work
ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense
allocation (1% of GDP) have helped Japan advance with extraordinary
rapidity to the rank of second most technologically powerful economy
in the world after the US and third largest economy in the world after
the US and China. One notable characteristic of the economy is the
working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in
closely knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been
the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the
urban labor force. Both features are now eroding. Industry, the most
important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw
materials and fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is highly
subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the
world. Usually self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of
its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one
of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of
the global catch. For three decades overall real economic growth had
been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the
1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in
1992-95 largely because of the aftereffects of overinvestment during
the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring
speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Growth
picked up to 3.9% in 1996, largely a reflection of stimulative fiscal
and monetary policies as well as low rates of inflation. But in
1997-98 Japan experienced a wrenching recession, centered about
financial difficulties in the banking system and real estate markets
and exacerbated by rigidities in corporate structures and labor
markets. In 1999 output started to stabilize as emergency government
spending began to take hold and business confidence gradually
improved. The crowding of habitable land area and the aging of the
population are two major long-run problems. Robotics constitutes a key
long-term economic strength, with Japan possessing 410,000 of the
world's 720,000 "working robots".

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.95 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 35%
services: 63% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 67.76 million (November 1999)

Labor force - by occupation: trade and services 65%, industry 30%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5%

Unemployment rate: 4.7% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $463 billion
expenditures: $809 billion, including capital expenditures (public
works only) of about $94 billion (FY00/01 est.)

Industries: among world's largest and technologically advanced
producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools,
steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals; textiles, processed
foods

Industrial production growth rate: -0.1% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 995.982 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 56.68%
hydro: 8.99%
nuclear: 31.93%
other: 2.4% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 926.263 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork,
poultry, dairy products, eggs; fish

Exports: $413 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, semiconductors, office
machinery, chemicals

Exports - partners: US 31%, Taiwan 7%, China 5.5%, South Korea 5.4%,
Hong Kong 5.2% (1999)

Imports: $306 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, office
machinery

Imports - partners: US 22%, China 14%, South Korea 5.1%, Australia
4.2%, Taiwan 4.1% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $9.1 billion (1999)

Currency: yen

Exchange rates: yen per US$1 - 105.16 (January 2000), 113.91 (1999),
130.91 (1998), 120.99 (1997), 108.78 (1996), 94.06 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Japan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60.3 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 36.5 million (1998)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); submarine cables to
China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 190, FM 88, shortwave 24 (1999)

Radios: 120.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7,108 (plus 441 repeaters; note - in
addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable
services) (1999)

Televisions: 86.5 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 357 (1999)

@Japan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 23,670.7 km
standard gauge: 2,893.1 km 1.435-m gauge (entirely electrified)
narrow gauge: 89.8 km 1.372-m gauge (89.8 km electrified); 20,656.8 km
1.067-m gauge (10,383.6 km electrified); 31 km 0.762-m gauge (3.6 km
electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 1,152,207 km
paved: 863,003 km (including 6,114 km of expressways)
unpaved: 289,204 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas
1,800 km

Ports and harbors: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate,
Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro,
Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo,
Tomakomai

Merchant marine:
total: 662 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,039,488
GRT/18,024,969 DWT
ships by type: bulk 146, cargo 49, chemical tanker 13, combination
bulk 16, combination ore/oil 4, container 25, liquified gas 45,
passenger 9, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 214, refrigerated
cargo 22, roll-on/roll-off 48, short-sea passenger 9, vehicle carrier
60 (1999 est.)

Airports: 171 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 140
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 41
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 31 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 28 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 14 (1999 est.)

@Japan:Military

Military branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan
Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air
Force)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 30,259,247 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 26,139,516 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 771,452 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42.9 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY98/99)

@Japan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and
the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now
administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks
(Takeshima/Tokdo) disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

______________________________________________________________________



JARVIS ISLAND

@Jarvis Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to the Cook Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 22 S, 160 03 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 4.5 sq km
land: 4.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 7 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for
seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife

@Jarvis Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally
used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was
abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical
Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use
permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted
to scientists and educators; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
Service (July 2000 est.)

@Jarvis Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jarvis Island

Data code: DQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge
system

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Jarvis Island:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Jarvis Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one
boat landing area in the middle of the west coast and another near the
southwest corner of the island

Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the
west coast

@Jarvis Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

@Jarvis Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



JERSEY

@Jersey:Introduction

Background: The island of Jersey and the other Channel Islands
represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that
held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only
British soil occupied by German troops in World War II.

@Jersey:Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of
France

Geographic coordinates: 49 15 N, 2 10 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 116 sq km
land: 116 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 70 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 143 m

Natural resources: arable land

Land use:
arable land: 66%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about
30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

@Jersey:People

Population: 88,915 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 8,140; female 7,563)
15-64 years: 68% (male 30,036; female 30,329)
65 years and over: 14% (male 5,454; female 7,393) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.52% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 11.65 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.48 years
male: 76.07 years
female: 81.07 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New
Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

Languages: English (official), French (official), Norman-French
dialect spoken in country districts

Literacy:
definition: NA
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA

@Jersey:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form: Jersey

Data code: JE

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: NA

Capital: Saint Helier

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Sir
Michael WILKES (since NA 1995) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE
(since NA 1995)
cabinet: committees appointed by the Assembly of the States
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and
bailiff appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States (55 voting
members - 12 senators, 12 constables or heads of parishes, 29
deputies; all elected for six-year terms, half elected every third
year; the bailiff and the deputy bailiff; and 3 non-voting members -
the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General and the Solicitor General all
appointed by the monarch
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 52

Judicial branch: Royal Court, judges elected by an electoral college
and the bailiff

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: white with a diagonal red cross extending to the
corners of the flag and in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow
crown, a red shield holding the three lions of England in yellow

@Jersey:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on international
financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower,
tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped
mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide
and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to
the UK and other EU countries. In 1996 the finance sector accounted
for about 60% of the island's output. Tourism, another mainstay of the
economy, accounts for 24% of GDP. In recent years, the government has
encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an
electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional
manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements
are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light
taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 2%
services: 93% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.7% (1998)

Labor force: 57,050 (1996)

Unemployment rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $666.9 million
expenditures: $618.5 million, including capital expenditures of $128.4
million (1996 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 266 million kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0%

Electricity - consumption: 467 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 201 million kWh (from France) (1995)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy
products

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: light industrial and electrical goods,
foodstuffs, textiles

Exports - partners: UK

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners: UK

Debt - external: none

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: 1 Jersey pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds per US$1 - 0.6092 (January 2000), 0.6180
(1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995);
the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Jersey:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: 3 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Jersey:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 577 km (1995)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Jersey:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Jersey:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



JOHNSTON ATOLL

@Johnston Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 169 30 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 2.8 sq km
land: 2.8 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds
with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Summit Peak 5 m

Natural resources: NA; guano deposits worked until depletion about
1890

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 56 of 140)