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permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean;
Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been
expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island
(Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the
public; former US nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll
Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation

@Johnston Atoll:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is an average of 1,100 US military and civilian contractor
personnel present (January 2000 est.)

@Johnston Atoll:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Johnston Atoll

Data code: JQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC, by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)
and managed cooperatively by DTRA and the Fish and Wildlife Service of
the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife
Refuge system

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Johnston Atoll:Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services
to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: there are six 25,000 kWh generators supplied by the base
operating support contractor

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

@Johnston Atoll:Communications

Telephone system: 13 outgoing and 10 incoming commercial lines;
adequate telecommunications
domestic: 60-channel submarine cable, 22 DSN circuits by satellite,
Autodin with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch,
Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), UHF/VHF air-ground
radio, a link to the Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network
(PCTN) satellite
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Television broadcast stations: commercial satellite television system,
with 16 channels (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Johnston Atoll:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Johnston Island

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Johnston Atoll:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Johnston Atoll:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



JORDAN

@Jordan:Introduction

Background: For most of its history since independence from British
administration in 1946, Jordan was ruled by King HUSSEIN (1953-1999).
A pragmatic ruler, he successfully navigated competing pressures from
the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and
a large internal Palestinian population, through several wars and coup
attempts. In 1989 he resumed parliamentary elections and gradually
permitted political liberalization; in 1994 a formal peace treaty was
signed with Israel.

@Jordan:Geography

Location: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 89,213 sq km
land: 88,884 sq km
water: 329 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,619 km
border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km,
Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great
Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Jabal Ram 1,734 m

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 85% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 630 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Jordan:People

Population: 4,998,564 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 968,579; female 925,987)
15-64 years: 59% (male 1,568,615; female 1,374,303)
65 years and over: 3% (male 79,748; female 81,332) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 26.24 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 2.63 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.36 years
male: 74.94 years
female: 79.93 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.44 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 96%, Christian 4% (1997 est.)

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper
and middle classes

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.6%
male: 93.4%
female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

@Jordan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan

Data code: JO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 12 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman,
At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King ABDALLAH bin al Hussein (since 7 February 1999);
Crown Prince HAMZAH bin al Hussein (half brother of the King, born 29
March 1980)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdur-Rauf RAWABDEH (since 4 March
1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with
the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
by the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma
consists of the Senate (a 40-member body appointed by the monarch from
designated categories of public figures; members serve four-year
terms) and the House of Representatives (80 seats; members elected by
popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve
four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 4 November 1997 (next
to be held NA November 2001)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - National Constitutional Party 2, Arab Land
Party 1, independents 75, other 2
note: the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by
the monarch several times since 1974; in November 1989 the first
parliamentary elections in 22 years were held

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final
appeal)

Political parties and leaders: Al-Ahrar (Freedom) Party [Dr. Ahmad
ZO'BI, secretary general]; Arab Ba'th Progressive Party [Mahmoud
al-MA'AYTAH, secretary general]; Arab Islamic Democratic Party (Doa'a)
; Arab Jordanian Ansar Party
; Arab Land Party [Dr. Muhammad
al-'ORAN, secretary general]; Democratic Party of the Left [Musa
MA'AITAH, secretary general]; Islamic Action Front [Abd-al-Latif
ARABIYAT, secretary general]; Jordanian Arab Constitutional Front
Party ; Jordanian Arab New Dawn Party
; Jordanian Ba'th Arab Socialist Party [Tayseer al-HOMSI,
secretary general]; Jordanian Communist Party [Ya'acoub ZAYADIN,
secretary general]; Jordanian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'eed
MUSTAPHA, secretary general]; Jordanian Labor Party [Muhammad
KHATAYIBAH, secretary general]; Jordanian Peace Party [Dr. Shaher
KHREIS, secretary general]; Jordanian People's Democratic Party or
HASHD ; Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party
; National Action Party or Haqq
; National Constitutional Party
; National Democratic Public
Movement Party ; Progressive
Party ; Al-Umma (Nation) Party
; The Generations [Hamad al-KHALAYLA,
chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Council of Professional
Association Presidents ; Jordanian Press
Association ; Muslim Brotherhood
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner),
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marwan Jamil MUASHER
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 966-2664
FAX: (202) 966-3110

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William BURNS
embassy: Abdoum, Amman
mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; APO AE 09892-0200
telephone: (6) 5920101
FAX: (6) 5927712

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white,
and green with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a small white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star
represent the seven fundamental laws of the Koran

@Jordan:Economy

Economy - overview: Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate
supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil. The Persian
Gulf crisis, which began in August 1990, aggravated Jordan's already
serious economic problems, forcing the government to shelve the IMF
program, stop most debt payments, and suspend rescheduling
negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker remittances, and trade
contracted; and refugees flooded the country, producing serious
balance-of-payments problems, stunting GDP growth, and straining
government resources. The economy rebounded in 1992, largely due to
the influx of capital repatriated by workers returning from the Gulf.
After averaging 9% in 1992-95, GDP growth averaged only 2% during
1996-99. In an attempt to spur growth, King ABDALLAH has undertaken
limited economic reform, including partial privatization of some state
owned enterprises and Jordan's entry in January 2000 into the World
Trade Organization (WTrO). Debt, poverty, and unemployment are
fundamental ongoing economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 25%
services: 72% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 30% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 34.7% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.15 million
note: in addition, at least 300,000 workers are employed abroad (1997
est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants,
and hotels 10.5%, construction 10%, transport and communications 8.7%,
agriculture 7.4%, other services 52% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 15% official rate; actual rate is 25%-30% (1999
est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.8 billion
expenditures: $3.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: -3.4% (1996)

Electricity - production: 6.08 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.51%
hydro: 0.49%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 6.102 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 2 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 450 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons,
olives; sheep, goats, poultry

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural
products, manufactures

Exports - partners: Iraq, India, Saudi Arabia, EU, Indonesia, UAE,
Lebanon, Kuwait, Syria, Ethiopia

Imports: $3.3 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery, transport equipment,
food, live animals, manufactured goods

Imports - partners: Germany, Iraq, US, Japan, UK, Italy, Turkey,
Malaysia, Syria, China

Debt - external: $8.4 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $850 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7090 (January
2000-1996), 0.7005 (1995)
note: since May 1989, the dinar has been pegged to a group of
currencies

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Jordan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 402,600 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 75,000 (1999)

Telephone system: service has improved recently with the increased use
of digital switching equipment, but better access to the telephone
system is needed in the rural areas and easier access to pay
telephones is needed by the urban public
domestic: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and
fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; considerable use is
made of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is available
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and
29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Saudi
Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; connection
to international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the
Globe); participant in MEDARABTEL; international links total about
4,000

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 1.66 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (plus approximately 42 repeaters and
1 TV receive-only satellite link) (1999)

Televisions: 500,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (1999)

@Jordan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 677 km
narrow gauge: 677 km 1.050-m gauge (2000)

Highways:
total: 8,000 km
paved: 8,000 km
unpaved: 0 km (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 209 km; note - may not be in use

Ports and harbors: Al 'Aqabah

Merchant marine:
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,746 GRT/59,100 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 2, container 1, livestock carrier 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 20 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Jordan:Military

Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal
Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air
Force); Badiya (irregular) Border Guards; Ministry of the Interior's
Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or crisis
situations)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,399,138 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 993,730 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 55,742 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $608.9 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 7.8% (FY98)

@Jordan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND

@Juan de Nova Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 S, 42 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 4.4 sq km
land: 4.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about seven times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth the of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low and flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 10 m

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 90%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary

@Juan de Nova Island:People

Population: no indigenous population
note: there is a small military garrison (July 2000 est.)

@Juan de Nova Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Juan de Nova Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Juan de Nova

Data code: JU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Juan de Nova Island:Economy

Economy - overview: 12,000 tons of guano are mined per year.

@Juan de Nova Island:Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station

@Juan de Nova Island:Transportation

Railways:
total: NA km; short line going to a jetty

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Juan de Nova Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Juan de Nova Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________



KAZAKHSTAN

@Kazakhstan:Introduction

Background: During the 1950s and 1960s Soviet citizens were urged to
help settle the "New Lands" of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.
The influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but including some deported
minority nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled
non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of
these newcomers to emigrate. Current issues include: resolving ethnic
differences; speeding up market reforms; establishing stable relations
with Russia, China, and other foreign powers; and developing and
expanding the country's abundant energy resources.

@Kazakhstan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 2,717,300 sq km
land: 2,669,800 sq km
water: 47,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 12,012 km
border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846
km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of
water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the
plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal,
iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum,
lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 11%
permanent pastures: 57%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 16% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 22,000 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south, mud slides around Almaty

Environment - current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites
associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are
found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and
animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the
two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for
irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of
chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then
picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in
the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals
and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation
practices

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked

@Kazakhstan:People

Population: 16,733,227 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 2,332,284; female 2,260,730)
15-64 years: 65% (male 5,320,938; female 5,638,710)
65 years and over: 8% (male 398,225; female 782,340) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.05% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.78 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.56 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.19 years
male: 57.73 years
female: 68.93 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 46%, Russian 34.7%, Ukrainian 4.9%,
German 3.1%, Uzbek 2.3%, Tatar 1.9%, other 7.1% (1996)

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 40%, Russian (official, used
in everyday business) 66%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Kazakhstan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form: Kazakhstan
local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: none
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: KZ

Government type: republic

Capital: Astana
note: the government moved from Almaty to Astana in December 1998

Administrative divisions: 14 oblystar (singular - oblysy) and 3 cities
(qala, singular - qalasy)*; Almaty, Almaty*, Aqmola (Astana), Aqtobe,
Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan (Oral), Bayqongyr*, Mangghystau
(Aqtau; formerly Shevchenko), Ongtustik Qazaqstan (Shymkent),
Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan (Oskemen;
formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan (Petropavl), Zhambyl
(Taraz; formerly Dzhambul)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses); in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and
Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a
period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Bayqongyr
(Baykonur) space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (formerly
Leninsk)

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Day of the Republic, 25 October (1990) (date on
which Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty)



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