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Constitution: adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first
post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the
Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December
1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Kazymzhomart TOKAYEV (since 2
October 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 10 January 1999, a year before it was previously
scheduled (next to be held NA 2006); note - President NAZARBAYEV's
previous term had been extended to 2000 by a nationwide referendum
held 30 April 1995; prime minister and first deputy prime minister
appointed by the president
election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV elected president; percent
of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 79.8%, Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN 11.7%,
Gani KASYMOV 4.6%
note: President NAZARBAYEV expanded his presidential powers by decree:
only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss
the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion,
and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47
seats; 7 senators are appointed by the president; other members are
popularly elected, two from each oblast and Almaty, to serve six-year
terms) and the Majilis (67 seats; the addition of 10 "Party List"
seats brings the total to 77; members are popularly elected to serve
five-year terms); note - with the oblasts being reduced to 14, the
Senate will eventually be reduced to 37; a number of Senate seats come
up for reelection every two years
elections: Senate - (indirect) last held 17 September 1999 (next to be
held NA 2001); Majilis - last held 10 October 1999 (next to be held NA
2004)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA; 16 seats up for election in 1999, candidates nominated by
local councils; Majilis - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Otan 25, Civic Party 10, Communist Party 3, Agrarian Party 3,
People's Cooperative Party 1, independents 32, 3 seats unaccounted for
note - most independent candidates are affiliated with parastatal
enterprises and other pro-government institutions

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7
members)

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party ; Alash
; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK, Murat AUEZOV, and
Galym ABILSIITOV, cochairmen]; Civic Party [Azat PERUASHEV, first
secretary]; Communist Party or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first
secretary]; Forum of Democratic Forces ; Labor and Workers
Movement ; Orleu Movement [Seidakhmet
KUTTYKADAM]; Otan ; Pensioners Movement
or Pokoleniye ; People's Congress of
Kazakhstan or NKK ; People's Cooperative
Party ; Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan
Political pressure groups and leaders: Kazakhstan International Bureau
on Human Rights

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM
(observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bolat K. NURGALIYEV
chancery: 1401 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (202) 232-5488
FAX: (202) 232-5845
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard H. JONES
embassy: 99/97A Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
480091
mailing address: American Embassy Almaty, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7030
telephone: (3272) 63-39-21, 63-13-75, 50-76-23
FAX: (3272) 63-38-83

Flag description: sky blue background representing the endless sky and
a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the
center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in gold

@Kazakhstan:Economy

Economy - overview: Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former
Soviet republics in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil fuel
reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals.
It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe
lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakhstan's
industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these
natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building
sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural
machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the
collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry
products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since
1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97
the pace of the government program of economic reform and
privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets
into the private sector. The December 1996 signing of the Caspian
Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western
Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil field to the Black Sea increases prospects for
substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's
economy turned downward in 1998 with a 2.5% decline in GDP growth due
to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. A
bright spot in 1999 was the recovery of international oil prices,
which, combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain
harvest, pulled the economy out of recession.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $54.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 30%
services: 60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 24.9% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 8.8 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 27%, agriculture and forestry
23%, other 50% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 13.7% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.1 billion
expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc,
copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and
steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery,
electric motors, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 49.299 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 87.73%
hydro: 12.07%
nuclear: 0.2%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 48.822 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 400 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 3.374 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; wool,
livestock

Exports: $5.2 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil 40%, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
machinery, chemicals, grain, wool, meat, coal

Exports - partners: EU 32%, China 29%, Russia 29% (1998)

Imports: $4.8 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil
and gas, vehicles

Imports - partners: Russia 39%, Ukraine, US, Uzbekistan, Turkey, UK,
Germany, South Korea (1998)

Debt - external: $7.9 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $409.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Kazakhstani tenge = 100 tiyn

Exchange rates: tenges per US$1 - 139.02 (January 2000), 119.52
(1999), 78.30 (1998), 75.44 (1997), 67.30 (1996), 60.95 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Kazakhstan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.963 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,600 (1995)

Telephone system: service is poor; equipment antiquated
domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile
cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan
international: international traffic with other former Soviet
republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay;
with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE)
fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 60, FM 17, shortwave 9 (1998)

Radios: 6.47 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus nine repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 3.88 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 83 (Kazakhstan and Russia) (1999)

@Kazakhstan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 14,400 km in common carrier service; does not include
industrial lines
broad gauge: 14,400 km 1.520-m gauge (3,299 km electrified) (1997)

Highways:
total: 119,390 km
paved: 103,272 km
unpaved: 16,118 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 3,900 km on the Syrdariya (Syr Darya) and Ertis (Irtysh)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas
3,480 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen
(Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)

Airports: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Kazakhstan:Military

Military branches: General Purpose Forces (Army), Air Force, Border
Guards, Navy, Republican Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,477,455 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 3,572,688 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 158,838 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $322 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99)

@Kazakhstan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet
determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory
enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome

Illicit drugs: significant illicit cultivation of cannabis and limited
cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrone);
limited government eradication program; cannabis consumed largely in
the CIS; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia,
North America, and Western Europe from Southwest Asia

______________________________________________________________________



KENYA

@Kenya:Introduction

Background: Ethnic divisions account for many of Kenya's problems.
During the early 1990s, tribal clashes killed thousands and left tens
of thousands homeless. Ethnically split opposition groups allowed the
regime of Daniel Toroitich arap MOI, in power since 1978, to be
reelected for a fourth term in 1997 in balloting marred by violence
and fraud.

@Kenya:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia
and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 582,650 sq km
land: 569,250 sq km
water: 13,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 3,446 km
border countries: Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km,
Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift
Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barites, rubies,
fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 37%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring drought in northern and eastern regions;
flooding during rainy seasons

Environment - current issues: water pollution from urban and
industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of
pesticides and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most
successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt.
Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of
scientific and economic value

@Kenya:People

Population: 30,339,770
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 6,566,424; female 6,419,034)
15-64 years: 54% (male 8,284,719; female 8,238,121)
65 years and over: 3% (male 366,200; female 465,272) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.53% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 29.35 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.08 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 68.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.98 years
male: 46.95 years
female: 49.04 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.66 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba
11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian,
European, and Arab) 1%

Religions: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs 26%,
Muslim 7%, other 1%

Languages: English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous
indigenous languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.1%
male: 86.3%
female: 70% (1995 est.)

@Kenya:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa

Data code: KE

Government type: republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued
with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, and 1997

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic
law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982
making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October
1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14
October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote from among the members of
the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 29
December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003); vice president
appointed by the president
election results: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI reelected;
percent of vote - Daniel T. arap MOI (KANU) 40.6%, Mwai KIBAKI (DP)
31.5%, Raila ODINGA (NDP) 11.1%, Michael WAMALWA (FORD-K) 8.4%,
Charity NGILU (SDP) 7.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (222 seats,
12 appointed by the president, 210 members elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held between 1
December 2002 and 30 April 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - KANU
107, FORD-A 1, FORD-K 17, FORD-People 3, DP 39, NDP 21, SDP 15, SAFINA
5, smaller parties 2; seats appointed by the president - KANU 6,
FORD-K 1, DP 2, SDP 1, NDP 1, SAFINA 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, chief justice is appointed by the
president; High Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Kenya or DP [Mwai
KIBAKI]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili or FORD-A
; Forum for the Restoration of
Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K ; Forum for the
Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People ; Kenya
African National Union or KANU -
the governing party; National Development Party or NDP [Raila ODINGA,
president, Dr. Charles MARANGA, secretary general]; SAFINA [Farah
MAALIM, chairman, Mghanga MWANDAWIRO, secretary general]; Social
Democratic Party or SDP

Political pressure groups and leaders: human rights groups; labor
unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or
NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment
organizations ; Protestant National Council of
Churches of Kenya or NCCK ; Roman Catholic and other
Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenyan Muslims or SUPKEM
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel K. CHEMAI (recalled in November
1999)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 387-6101
FAX: (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnnie CARSON
embassy: US Embassy, Mombasa Road, Nairobi
mailing address: P. O. Box 30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: (2) 537-800
FAX: (2) 537-810

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield
covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center

@Kenya:Economy

Economy - overview: Kenya is well placed to serve as an engine of
growth in East Africa, but its economy is stagnating because of poor
management and uneven commitment to reform. In 1993, the government of
Kenya implemented a program of economic liberalization and reform that
included the removal of import licensing, price controls, and foreign
exchange controls. With the support of the World Bank, IMF, and other
donors, the reforms led to a brief turnaround in economic performance
following a period of negative growth in the early 1990s. Kenya's real
GDP grew 5% in 1995 and 4% in 1996, and inflation remained under
control. Growth slowed in 1997-99 however. Political violence damaged
the tourist industry, and Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment
Program lapsed due to the government's failure to maintain reform or
address public sector corruption. A new economic team was put in place
in 1999 to revitalize the reform effort, strengthen the civil service,
and curb corruption, but wary donors continue to question the
government's commitment to sound economic policy. Long-term barriers
to development include electricity shortages, the government's
continued and inefficient dominance of key sectors, endemic
corruption, and the country's high population growth rate.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $45.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: 18%
services: 56% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 42% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 47.7% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 9.2 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75%-80%

Unemployment rate: 50% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.91 billion
expenditures: $2.97 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries,
textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing;
oil refining, cement; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.23 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 8.27%
hydro: 82.74%
nuclear: 0%
other: 8.99% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 4.078 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 144 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit,
vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: tea, coffee, horticultural products, petroleum
products (1995)

Exports - partners: Uganda 16%, UK 13%, Tanzania 13%, Egypt 5%,
Germany 5% (1998)

Imports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
petroleum products, iron and steel

Imports - partners: UK 12%, UAE 9%, US 8%, Japan 8%, Germany 6%, India
4% (1998)

Debt - external: $6.5 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $457 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 73.943 (December
1999), 70.326 (1999), 60.367 (1998), 58.732 (1997), 57.115 (1996),
51.430 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Kenya:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 290,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,000 (1999)

Telephone system: unreliable; little attempt to modernize
domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; data commonly
transferred by a very small aperature terminal (VSAT)
international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 24, FM 8, shortwave 6 (1999)

Radios: 3.07 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (1997)

Televisions: 730,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (1999)

@Kenya:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,778 km
narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge
note: the line connecting Nairobi with the port of Mombasa is the most
important in the country

Highways:
total: 63,800 km
paved: 8,868 km
unpaved: 54,932 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: part of the Lake Victoria system is within the boundaries
of Kenya

Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km

Ports and harbors: Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,893 GRT/6,255 DWT
ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 230 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 209
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 110
under 914 m: 84 (1999 est.)

@Kenya:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service
Unit of the Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 7,482,095 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 4,631,987 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $197 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY98/99)

@Kenya:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana
and qat (chat); transit country for South Asian heroin destined for
Europe and, sometimes, North America; Indian methaqualone also
transits on way to South Africa



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