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______________________________________________________________________



KINGMAN REEF

@Kingman Reef:Geography

Location: Oceania, reef in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 6 24 N, 162 24 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1 sq km
land: 1 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

Terrain: low and nearly level

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 1 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1996)

Natural hazards: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of
about 1 meter makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: none

Geography - note: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed
to the public

@Kingman Reef:People

Population: uninhabited (July 2000 est.)

@Kingman Reef:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Kingman Reef

Data code: KQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC by the US Navy; however, it is awash the majority
of the time, so it is not usable and is uninhabited

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Kingman Reef:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Kingman Reef:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and
1938

@Kingman Reef:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Kingman Reef:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



KIRIBATI

@Kiribati:Introduction

Background: The Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in
1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati.
The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and
Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati.

@Kiribati:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, straddling
the equator, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia; note
- on 1 January 1995, Kiribati unilaterally moved the International
Date Line from the middle of the country to include its easternmost
islands and make it the same day throughout the country

Geographic coordinates: 1 25 N, 173 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 717 sq km
land: 717 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands

Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,143 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Banaba 81 m

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 51%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to
March; occasional tornadoes; low-level of some of the islands make
them very sensitive to sea-level rise

Environment - current issues: heavy pollution in lagoon of south
Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices
such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean
Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and
Nauru

@Kiribati:People

Population: 91,985 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.85% (male 19,027; female 18,551)
15-64 years: 56% (male 25,411; female 26,097)
65 years and over: 3.15% (male 1,239; female 1,660) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.34% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 32.43 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.01 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 55.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.78 years
male: 56.89 years
female: 62.82 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.4 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective: I-Kiribati

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 53%, Protestant (Congregational) 41%,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985 est.)

Languages: English (official), Gilbertese

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Kiribati:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form: Kiribati
note: pronounced kir-ih-bahss
former: Gilbert Islands

Data code: KR

Government type: republic

Capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands
note: in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts,
Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21
island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang,
Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton,
Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa,
Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994); Vice
President Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994);
Vice President Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
the House of Assembly, includes the president, vice president,
attorney general, and up to eight other ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
note - the House of Assembly chooses the presidential candidates from
among their members and then those candidates compete in a general
election; election last held 27 November 1998 (next to be held by NA
November 2002); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Teburoro TITO reelected president; percent of vote -
Teburoro TITO 52.3%, Dr. Harry TONG 45.8%, Amberoti NIKORA 1.9%,
Taberannang TIMEON 0%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly or Maneaba Ni
Maungatabu (41 seats; 39 elected by popular vote, one ex officio
member, and one nominated to represent Banaba; members serve four-year
terms)
elections: last held 23 September 1998 (next to be held by NA
September 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Maneaban Te Mauri Party 14, National Progressive Party 11,
independents 14

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges at all levels are appointed
by the president; High Court, judges at all levels are appointed by
the president; 26 Magistrates' courts, judges at all levels are
appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party ;
Maneaban Te Mauri Party ; National Progressive Party
; New Movement Party
note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in
Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups
because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party
structures

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
Interpol, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Kiribati does not have an embassy
in the US; there is an honorary consulate in Honolulu

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Kiribati; the ambassador to the Marshall Islands is accredited to

Flag description: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird
flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three
horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean

@Kiribati:Economy

Economy - overview: A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls,
Kiribati has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate
deposits were exhausted at the time of independence from the UK in
1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports.
The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Economic
development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak
infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. Tourism
provides more than one-fifth of GDP. The financial sector is at an
early stage of development as is the expansion of private sector
initiatives. Foreign financial aid, largely from the UK and Japan, is
a critical supplement to GDP, equal to 25%-50% of GDP in recent years.
Remittances from workers abroad account for more than $5 million each
year.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $74 million (1999 est.), supplemented
by a nearly equal amount from external sources

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $860 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 7%
services: 79% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 7,870 economically active, not including subsistence
farmers (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $33.3 million
expenditures: $47.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1992 est.)

Electricity - production: 7 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 7 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes,
vegetables; fish

Exports: $6 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: copra 62%, seaweed, fish

Exports - partners: US, Australia, NZ (1996)

Imports: $37 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment,
miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel

Imports - partners: Australia 46%, Fiji, Japan, NZ, US (1996)

Debt - external: $7.2 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $15.5 million (1995), largely from UK and
Japan

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.5207 (January
2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996),
1.3486 (1995)

Fiscal year: NA

@Kiribati:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,600 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
note: Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative
Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 17,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Kiribati:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 670 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands

Ports and harbors: Banaba, Betio, English Harbor, Kanton

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,291 GRT/1,295 DWT
ships by type: passenger/cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 21 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)

@Kiribati:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force (carries
out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; small police
posts are on all islands)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: Kiribati does not have military forces; defense
assistance is provided by Australia and NZ

@Kiribati:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



KOREA

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 127 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 120,540 sq km
land: 120,410 sq km
water: 130 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries:
total: 1,673 km
border countries: China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
note: military boundary line 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the
exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign
vessels and aircraft without permission are banned

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys;
coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 61%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 14,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: late spring droughts often followed by severe
flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall

Environment - current issues: localized air pollution attributable to
inadequate industrial controls; water pollution; inadequate supplies
of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea

Geography - note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and
Russia; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated

@Korea:People

Population: 21,687,550 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 2,843,250; female 2,705,206)
15-64 years: 68% (male 7,223,364; female 7,502,094)
65 years and over: 6% (male 448,242; female 965,394) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.35% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.43 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.88 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.74 years
male: 67.76 years
female: 73.86 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese
community and a few ethnic Japanese

Religions: traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and
syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way)
note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent;
government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of
religious freedom

Languages: Korean

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Korean
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1990 est.)

@Korea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
conventional short form: North Korea
local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
local short form: none
note: the North Koreans generally use the term "Choson" to refer to
their country
abbreviation: DPRK

Data code: KN

Government type: authoritarian socialist; one-man dictatorship

Capital: P'yongyang

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3
special cities* (si, singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang
Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo
(South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province),
Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City),
Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City),
P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo (South
P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do
(Yanggang Province)

Independence: 9 September 1948, Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(DPRK) Foundation Day
note: 15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and
celebrated in North Korea as National Liberation Day

National holiday: Foundation Day, 9 September (1948)

Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972,
revised again in April 1992 and September 1998

Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese
influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: KIM Chong-il (since NA July 1994); note - in September
1998, KIM Chong-il was reelected Chairman of the National Defense
Commission, a position accorded the nation's "highest administrative
authority"; KIM Young-nam was named President of the Supreme People's
Assembly Presidium and given the responsibility of representing the
state and receiving diplomatic credentials
head of government: Premier HONG Song-nam (since 5 September 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet (Naegak), members, except for the Minister of
People's Armed Forces, are appointed by the Supreme People's Assembly
elections: premier elected by the Supreme People's Assembly; election
last held NA 1998 (next to be held NA)
election results: HONG Song-nam elected premier; percent of Supreme
People's Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly or Ch'oego
Inmin Hoeui (687 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - the
KWP approves a single list of candidates who are elected without
opposition; minor parties hold a few seats

Judicial branch: Central Court, judges are elected by the Supreme
People's Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Chondoist Chongu Party [YU Mi-yong,
chairwoman]; Korean Social Democratic Party ;
major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Chong-il, General
Secretary]

International organization participation: ESCAP, FAO, ICAO, ICRM,
IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO, ITU,
NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - North Korea has a
Permanent Mission to the UN in New York, headed by YI Hyong-chol

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (Swedish Embassy in
P'yongyang represents the US as consular protecting power)

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple
width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of
the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star

@Korea:Economy

Economy - overview: North Korea ranks among the world's most centrally
planned and isolated economies. The resulting economic distortions and
the government's reluctance to publicize economic data limit the
amount of reliable information available. State-owned industry
produces nearly all manufactured goods, and the regime continues to
devote its focus on heavy and military industries at the expense of
light and consumer industries. Economic conditions remain stagnant at
best and the country's deepening economic slide has been fueled by
acute energy shortages, poorly maintained and aging industrial
facilities, and a lack of new investment. The agricultural outlook,
though slightly improved over previous years, remains weak. The
combined effects of serious fertilizer shortages, successive natural
disasters, and structural constraints - such as marginal arable land
and a short growing season - have reduced staple grain output to more
than 1 million tons less than what the country needs to meet even
minimum international requirements. The steady flow of international
food aid has been critical in meeting the population's basic food
needs. The impact of other forms of humanitarian assistance such as
medical supplies and agricultural assistance largely has been limited
to local areas. Even with aid, malnutrition rates are among the
world's highest and estimates of mortality range in the hundreds of
thousands as a direct result of starvation or famine-related diseases.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $22.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 30%
industry: 42%
services: 28% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 9.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: military products; machine building, electric power,
chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc,
lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing;
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 31.975 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 34.4%
hydro: 65.6%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 29.737 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses;
cattle, pigs, pork, eggs

Exports: $680 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, manufactures
(including armaments); agricultural and fishery products

Exports - partners: Japan 28%, South Korea 21%, China 5%, Germany 4%,
Russia 1% (1995)

Imports: $954 million (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: petroleum, coking coal, machinery and
equipment; consumer goods, grain

Imports - partners: China 33%, Japan 17%, Russia 5%, South Korea 4%,
Germany 3% (1995)

Debt - external: $12 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - an estimated $200 million to
$300 million in humanitarian aid from US, South Korea, Japan, and EU
in 1997 plus much additional aid from the UN and non-governmental
organizations

Currency: 1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

Exchange rates: official: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.15 (May
1994), 2.13 (May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3
(December 1989); market: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 200

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Korea:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.1 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)



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