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@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay

Transportation - note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land
routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route
(Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways

@Arctic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between
Norway and Russia




Background: Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina
experienced periods of internal political conflict between
conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions.
After World War II, a long period of Peronist dictatorship was
followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy
returned in 1983, and four free elections since then have underscored
Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.


Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

total: 2,766,890 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 9,665 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 52%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes
subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can
strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: environmental problems (urban and rural)
typical of an industrializing economy such as soil degradation,
desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life

Geography - note: second-largest country in South America (after
Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage)


Population: 36,955,182 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 5,061,588; female 4,827,582)
15-64 years: 63% (male 11,625,574; female 11,613,358)
65 years and over: 10% (male 1,582,861; female 2,244,219) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.59 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.59 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.05 years
male: 71.67 years
female: 78.61 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo,
Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.2%
male: 96.2%
female: 96.2% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Government type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires;
Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*;
Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones;
Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe;
Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartica e Islas del Atlantico
Sur; Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fernando DE LA RUA (since 10 December 1999);
Vice President Carlos Alberto ALVAREZ (since 10 December 1999); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando DE LA RUA (since 10 December
1999); Vice President Carlos Alberto ALVAREZ (since 10 December 1999);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 24 October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2003)
election results: Fernando DE LA RUA elected president; percent of
vote - 48.5%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate (72 seats; formerly, three members appointed by
each of the provincial legislatures; presently transitioning to
one-third of the members being elected every two years to six-year
terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; one-half of the members
elected every two years to four-year terms)
elections: Senate - transition phase will begin in 2001 elections when
all seats will be fully contested; winners will randomly draw to
determine whether they will serve a two-year, four-year, or full
six-year term, beginning a rotating cycle renovating a third of the
body every two years; Chamber of Deputies - last held 24 October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2001)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA;
seats by bloc or party - Peronist 40, UCR 20, Frepaso 1, other 11;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by
bloc or party - Alliance 124 (UCR 85, Frepaso 36, others 3), Peronist
101, AR 12, other 20

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme Court
judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo
CAVALLO]; Alliance (UCR, Frepaso and others) ; Front for a
Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Carlos
ALVAREZ]; Justicialist Party or PJ (Peronist
umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Raul
ALFONSIN]; several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Argentine Association of
Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
landowners' association); Armed Forces; business organizations;
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic
Church; students

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE,
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Guillermo GONZALEZ Enrique
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (202) 238-6400
FAX: (202) 238-6471
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO address:
Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: (1) 777-4533, 4534
FAX: (1) 777-0197

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow
sun with a human face known as the Sun of May


Economy - overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a
highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
and a diversified industrial base. However, when President Carlos
MENEM took office in 1989, the country had piled up huge external
debts, inflation had reached 200% per month, and output was
plummeting. To combat the economic crisis, the government embarked on
a path of trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization. In
1991, it implemented radical monetary reforms which pegged the peso to
the US dollar and limited the growth in the monetary base by law to
the growth in reserves. Inflation fell sharply in subsequent years. In
1995, the Mexican peso crisis produced capital flight, the loss of
banking system deposits, and a severe, but short-lived, recession; a
series of reforms to bolster the domestic banking system followed.
Real GDP growth recovered strongly, reaching 8% in 1997. In 1998,
international financial turmoil caused by Russia's problems and
increasing investor anxiety over Brazil produced the highest domestic
interest rates in more than three years, halving the growth rate of
the economy. Conditions worsened in 1999 with GDP falling by 3%.
President Fernando DE LA RUA, who took office in December 1999,
sponsored tax increases and spending cuts to reduce the deficit, which
had ballooned to 2.5% of GDP in 1999. The new government also arranged
a new $7.4 billion stand-by facility with the IMF for contingency
purposes - almost three times the size of the previous arrangement.
Key challenges facing the new government include reforming the
country's rigid labor code and addressing the precarious financial
situation of several highly indebted provinces.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $367 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 29%
services: 64% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 15 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services

Unemployment rate: 14% (December 1999)

revenues: $44 billion
expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
billion (2000 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: -7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 75.237 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 42.71%
hydro: 47.55%
nuclear: 9.47%
other: 0.27% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 75.57 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 250 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 5.85 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes,
corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

Exports: $23 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed,
motor vehicles

Exports - partners: Brazil 24%, EU 21%, US 11% (1999 est.)

Imports: $25 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles,
chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners: EU 28%, US 22%, Brazil 21% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $149 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.833 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 peso = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: peso is pegged to the US dollar at an exchange rate of
1 peso = $1

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 7.5 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.8 million (1997)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern system
but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive use of
microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently fails during
rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires
domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with
40 earth stations serve the trunk network
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
two international gateways near Buenos Aires; Atlantis II submarine
cable (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM
NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 7.95 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 47 (1999)


total: 38,326 km (160 km electrified)
broad gauge: 24,481 km 1.676-m gauge (134 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 11,080 km 1.000-m gauge (1999)

total: 215,434 km
paved: 63,553 km (including 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 151,881 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 10,950 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio
Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 218,540 GRT/333,413 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 11, rail car carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off 1, short-sea passenger 2 (1999

Airports: 1,359 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 142
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
914 to 1,523 m: 44
under 914 m: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,217
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 63
914 to 1,523 m: 614
under 914 m: 536 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic
(includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air
Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 9,287,499 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,530,476 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 341,544 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY99)

@Argentina:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims UK-administered Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); claims UK-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine
headed for Europe and the US; increasing use as a money-laundering
center; domestic consumption of drugs has skyrocketed




Background: An Orthodox Christian country, Armenia was incorporated
into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain
preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over
Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated exclave, assigned to
Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began
fighting over the exclave in 1988; the struggle escalated after both
countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May
1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only
Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper.
The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make
substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.


Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total: 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast
flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such
as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has
led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution
of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake
Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens
drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant
without adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note: landlocked


Population: 3,344,336 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 415,297; female 400,590)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,084,588; female 1,131,387)
65 years and over: 10% (male 129,890; female 182,584) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.28% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.97 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.53 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.4 years
male: 61.98 years
female: 71.04 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1989 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular - marz) and 1
city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir,
Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor,

Independence: 28 May 1918-2 December 1920 (First Armenian Republic);
23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Aram SARKISYAN (since 3 November
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
special election last held 30 March 1998 (next to be held NA March
2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of vote
- Robert KOCHARIAN 59%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 41%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or
Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held in the spring of
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
unity bloc 61 (Republican Party 41, People's Party of Armenia 20),
Stability Group (independent Armenian deputies who have formed a bloc)
21, ACP 10, independents 10, ARF (Dashnak) 8, Law and Unity Party 7,
NDU 6, Law-Governed Party 6, unfilled 2; note - seats by party change

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian Communist Party or ACP
; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Vano
SIRADEGIAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak"
Party) or ARF ; Christian Democratic Union or CDU
; Democratic Liberal Party [Ramkavar
AZATAKAN, chairman]; Free Armenian's Mission [Ruben MNATSANIAN,
chairman]; Law and Unity Party ;
Law-Governed Party ; Mission Party
; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen
MANUKIAN]; National State Party ; People's Party of
Armenia ; Republican Party ;
Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM ; Social Democratic
(Hnchakian) Party ; Stability Group [Vartan
AYVAZIAN, chairman]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU
International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 319-1976
FAX: (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael LEMMON
embassy: 18 General Bagramian Avenue, Yerevan
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone: (2) 151-551
FAX: (2) 151-550

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and


Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system,
Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in
exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR
in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away

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