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Telephone system:
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
and 1 Russian (Indian Ocean Region); other international connections
through Moscow and Beijing

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 14, shortwave 12 (1999)

Radios: 3.36 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 38 (1999)

Televisions: 1.2 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Korea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,000 km
standard gauge: 4,095 km 1.435-m gauge (3,500 km electrified; 159 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 665 km 0.762-m gauge
dual gauge: 240 km 1.435-m and 1.600-m gauges (four rails interlaced)
(1996 est.)

Highways:
total: 31,200 km
paved: 1,997 km
unpaved: 29,203 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

Pipelines: crude oil 37 km; petroleum product 180 km

Ports and harbors: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Kimch'aek,
Kosong, Najin, Namp'o, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi),
Ungsang, Wonsan

Merchant marine:
total: 107 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 675,609 GRT/937,477 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 91, combination bulk 1, multi-functional
large load carrier 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker
4, short-sea passenger 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 49 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

@Korea:Military

Military branches: Korean People's Army (includes Army, Navy, Air
Force), Civil Security Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,853,635 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 3,527,760 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 178,931 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.7 billion to $4.9 billion
(FY98 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 25% to 33% (FY98 est.)

@Korea:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: 33-km section of boundary with China in the
Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; Demarcation Line with South

______________________________________________________________________



KOREA

______________________________________________________________________



KUWAIT

@Kuwait:Introduction

Background: Kuwait was attacked and overrun by Iraq on 2 August 1990.
Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a US-led UN coalition
began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that completely liberated
Kuwait in four days. Kuwait has spent more than $5 billion dollars to
repair oil infrastructure damaged during 1990-91.

@Kuwait:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and
Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 29 30 N, 45 45 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 17,820 sq km
land: 17,820 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 464 km
border countries: Iraq 242 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km

Coastline: 499 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 306 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April;
they bring inordinate amounts of rain which can damage roads and
houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year, but are
most common between March and August

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities
provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping

Geography - note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

@Kuwait:People

Population: 1,973,572
note: includes 1,159,913 non-nationals (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29.36% (male 295,102; female 284,327)
15-64 years: 68.32% (male 860,318; female 488,004)
65 years and over: 2.32% (male 29,544; female 16,277) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.44% (2000 est.)
note: this rate reflects a return to pre-Gulf crisis immigration of
expatriates

Birth rate: 22.04 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 2.45 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 14.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.5 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.08 years
male: 75.27 years
female: 76.92 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.26 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kuwaiti(s)
adjective: Kuwaiti

Ethnic groups: Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian
4%, other 7%

Religions: Muslim 85% (Sunni 45%, Shi'a 40%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi,
and other 15%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely spoken

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.6%
male: 82.2%
female: 74.9% (1995 est.)

@Kuwait:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Kuwait
conventional short form: Kuwait
local long form: Dawlat al Kuwayt
local short form: Al Kuwayt

Data code: KU

Government type: nominal constitutional monarchy

Capital: Kuwait

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al Farwaniyah, Al 'Asimah, Al Jahra', Hawalli

Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 25 February (1950)

Constitution: approved and promulgated 11 November 1962

Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in
personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: adult males who have been naturalized for 30 years or more
or have resided in Kuwait since before 1920 and their male descendants
at age 21
note: only 10% of all citizens are eligible to vote; in 1996,
naturalized citizens who do not meet the pre-1920 qualification but
have been naturalized for 30 years were eligible to vote for the first
time

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 31
December 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister and Crown Prince SAAD al-Abdallah
al-Salim Al Sabah (since 8 February 1978); First Deputy Prime Minister
SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 17 October 1992); Second
Deputy Prime Minister SALIM al-Sabah al-Salim Al Sabah (since 7
October 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and
approved by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy
prime ministers appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Umma (50
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 3 July 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 50; note
- all cabinet ministers are also ex officio members of the National
Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: several political groups act as
de facto parties: Bedouins, merchants, Sunni and Shi'a activists, and
secular leftists and nationalists

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
BDEAC, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim Al SABAH
chancery: 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 966-0702
FAX: (202) 966-0517

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James A. LAROCCO
embassy: Bayan, near the Bayan palace, Kuwait City
mailing address: P. O. Box 77 Safat, 13001 Safat, Kuwait; Unit 69000,
APO AE 09880-9000
telephone: 539-5307 or 539-5308
FAX: 538-0282

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red with a black trapezoid based on the hoist side

@Kuwait:Economy

Economy - overview: Kuwait is a small, relatively open economy with
proved crude oil reserves of about 94 billion barrels - 10% of world
reserves. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP, 90% of export
revenues, and 75% of government income. Kuwait lacks water and has
practically no arable land, thus preventing development of
agriculture. With the exception of fish, it depends almost wholly on
food imports. About 75% of potable water must be distilled or
imported. Higher oil prices reduced the budget deficit from $5.5
billion to $3 billion in 1999, and prices are expected to remain
relatively strong throughout 2000. The government is proceeding slowly
with reforms. It inaugurated Kuwait's first free-trade zone in 1999
and will continue discussions with foreign oil companies to develop
fields in the northern part of the country.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $44.8 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0%
industry: 55%
services: 45% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.3 million (1998 est.)
note: 68% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government and social services 50%,
services 40%, industry and agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.8% (official 1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10 billion
expenditures: $13 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999
est.)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing,
construction materials, salt, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 26.995 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 25.105 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: practically no crops; fish

Exports: $13.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and refined products, fertilizers

Exports - partners: Japan 24%, India 16%, US 13%, South Korea 11%,
Singapore 8% (1997)

Imports: $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: food, construction materials, vehicles and
parts, clothing

Imports - partners: US 22%, Japan 15%, UK 13%, Germany 8%, Italy 6%
(1997)

Debt - external: $9.27 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $27.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1 - 0.3042 (January 2000),
0.3044 (1999), 0.3047 (1998), 0.3033 (1997), 0.2994 (1996), 0.2984
(1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Kuwait:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 411,600 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 150,000 (1996)

Telephone system: the civil network suffered some damage as a result
of the Gulf war, but most of the telephone exchanges were left intact
and, by the end of 1994, domestic and international telecommunications
had been restored to normal operation; the quality of service is
excellent
domestic: new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new
subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay,
coaxial cable, open wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone
system operates throughout Kuwait, and the country is well supplied
with pay telephones; approximately 15,000 Internet subscribers in 1996
international: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi
Arabia; linked to Bahrain, Qatar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG)
cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 2
Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 2 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 11, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.175 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus several satellite channels)
(1997)

Televisions: 875,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Kuwait:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 4,450 km
paved: 3,590 km
unpaved: 860 km (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 877 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 165
km

Ports and harbors: Ash Shu'aybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Kuwait, Mina' 'Abd
Allah, Mina' al Ahmadi, Mina' Su'ud

Merchant marine:
total: 48 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,506,448 GRT/4,040,921
DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 9, container 6, liquified gas 7,
livestock carrier 4, petroleum tanker 21 (1999 est.)

Airports: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

@Kuwait:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force,
National Guard, Coast Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 749,252 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 446,518 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 17,919 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.518 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8% (FY99/00)

@Kuwait:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: in November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the
UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been spelled out in
Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993), and 883 (1993);
this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah
islands; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim islands disputed by
Saudi Arabia

______________________________________________________________________



KYRGYZSTAN

@Kyrgyzstan:Introduction

Background: A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and
proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it
achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Current concerns
include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of
democracy and political freedoms, inter-ethnic relations, and
terrorism.

@Kyrgyzstan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 198,500 sq km
land: 191,300 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 3,878 km
border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870
km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in
southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins
encompass entire nation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Kara-Darya 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m

Natural resources: abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold
and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas;
other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 44%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 45% (1993 est.)
note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural growth walnut forest

Irrigated land: 9,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution; many people get their
water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result,
water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from
faulty irrigation practices

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Kyrgyzstan:People

Population: 4,685,230 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 843,038; female 825,519)
15-64 years: 58% (male 1,337,268; female 1,393,397)
65 years and over: 6% (male 107,405; female 178,603) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.43% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 26.29 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.15 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.37 years
male: 59.06 years
female: 67.9 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.22 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic groups: Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 18%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian
2.5%, German 2.4%, other 11.8%

Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%

Languages: Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian - official
language
note: in March 1996, the Kyrgyzstani legislature amended the
constitution to make Russian an official language, along with Kirghiz,
in territories and work places where Russian-speaking citizens
predominate

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Kyrgyzstan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: none
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: KG

Government type: republic

Capital: Bishkek

Administrative divisions: 6 oblastlar (singular - oblast) and 1 city*
(singular - shaar); Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek),
Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty,
Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31
August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 5 May 1993
note: amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national
referendum on 10 February 1996 significantly expands the powers of the
president at the expense of the legislature

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Jumabek IBRAIMOV (since NA December
1998)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
elections last held 24 December 1995 (next to be held November or
December 2000); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Askar AKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote -
Askar AKAYEV 75%; note - elections were held early which gave the two
opposition candidates little time to campaign; AKAYEV may have
orchestrated the "deregistration" of two other candidates, one of whom
was a major rival

Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Council or Zhogorku Kenesh
consists of the Assembly of People's Representatives (70 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the
Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: Assembly of People's Representatives - last held 5 February
1995 (next to be held 20 February 2000); Legislative Assembly - last
held 5 February 1995 (next to be held 20 February 2000)
election results: Assembly of People's Representatives - percent of
vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - not all of the 70
seats were filled at the 5 February 1995 elections; as a result,
run-off elections were held at later dates; the assembly meets twice
yearly; Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA; note - not all of the 35 seats were filled at the 5
February 1995 elections; as a result, run-off elections were held at
later dates
note: the legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995
elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed for 10-year terms
by the Supreme Council on recommendation of the president;
Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party ; Agrarian
Party of Kyrgyzstan ; Banner National Revival Party or
ASABA ; Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan or PKK
; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or
DDK ; Dignity Party ;
Fatherland or Alta Mekel Party ; Justice Party
; Kyrgyzstan Erkin Party (Democratic Movement of
Free Kyrgyzstan) or ErK ; Movement for the
People's Salvation ; Mutual Help Movement or
Ashar ; National Unity Democratic Movement or DDNE
; Peasant Party ; Republican Popular
Party of Kyrgyzstan ; Social Democratic Party or
PSD

Political pressure groups and leaders: Council of Free Trade Unions;
Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights ; National Unity
Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs

International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent),
ITU, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bakyt ABDRISAYEV
chancery: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (202) 338-5141
FAX: (202) 338-5139

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne M. SIGMUND
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, 720016 Bishkek
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: (3312) 22-29-20, 22-27-77
FAX: (3312) 22-35-51

Flag description: red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40
rays representing the 40 Kirghiz tribes; on the obverse side the rays
run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the
sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized
representation of the roof of the traditional Kirghiz yurt

@Kyrgyzstan:Economy

Economy - overview: Kyrgyzstan is a small, poor, mountainous country
with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, wool, and meat are
the main agricultural products and exports. Industrial exports include
gold, mercury, uranium, and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been one of
the most progressive countries of the former Soviet Union in carrying
out market reforms. Following a successful stabilization program,
which lowered inflation from 88% in 1994 to 15% for 1997, attention is
turning toward stimulating growth. Much of the government's stock in
enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe since
the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995
production began to recover and exports began to increase. Pensioners,
unemployed workers, and government workers with salary arrears
continue to suffer. Foreign assistance played a substantial role in
the country's economic turnaround in 1996-97. The government has
adopted a series of measures to combat such severe problems as



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