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excessive external debt, inflation, inadequate revenue collection, and
the spillover from Russia's economic disorders. Kyrgyzstan had
moderate growth in 1999 of 3.4% with a similar rate expected for 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 45%
industry: 20%
services: 35% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.2% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 37% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 55%, industry
15%, services 30% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $225 million
expenditures: $308 million, including capital expenditures of $11
million (1996 est.)

Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes,
sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth
metals

Industrial production growth rate: -3.4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 12.206 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 10.78%
hydro: 89.22%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 11.102 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 1.1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 850 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes,
fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool

Exports: $515 million (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury,
uranium, hydropower; machinery; shoes

Exports - partners: Germany 37%, Kazakhstan 17%, Russia 16%,
Uzbekistan 8%, China 3% (1998)

Imports: $590 million (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: oil and gas, machinery and equipment,
foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Russia 24%, Uzbekistan 14%, Kazakhstan 9%, Germany
6%, China 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $329.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Kyrgyzstani som (KGS) = 100 tyiyn

Exchange rates: soms (KGS) per US$1 - 46.235 (January 2000), 39.008
(1999), 20.838 (1998), 17.362 (1997), 12.810 (1996), 10.822 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Kyrgyzstan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 357,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied
applications for household telephones
domestic: principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider,
probably limited to Bishkek region
international: connections with other CIS countries by landline or
microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections
with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite
earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected
internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 14,
shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 520,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA (repeater stations throughout the
country relay programs from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and
Turkey) (1997)

Televisions: 210,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Kyrgyzstan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 370 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 370 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 18,500 km
paved: 16,854 km (including 140 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,646 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 600 km (1990)

Pipelines: natural gas 200 km

Ports and harbors: Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)

Airports: 54 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 40
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 32 (1994 est.)

@Kyrgyzstan:Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces
(internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,172,899 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 951,395 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 48,551 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $12 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY99)

@Kyrgyzstan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial dispute with Tajikistan on
southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area; periodic target of
Islamic terrorists from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy,
mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia
and Western Europe from Southwest Asia

______________________________________________________________________



LAOS

@Laos:Introduction

Background: In 1975 the communist Pathet Lao took control of the
government, ending a six-century-old monarchy. Initial closer ties to
Vietnam and socialization were replaced with a gradual return to
private enterprise, an easing of foreign investment laws, and the
admission into ASEAN in 1997.

@Laos:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 236,800 sq km
land: 230,800 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Utah

Land boundaries:
total: 5,083 km
border countries: Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China 423 km,
Thailand 1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season
(December to April)

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mekong River 70 m
highest point: Phou Bia 2,817 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 40% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,250 sq km (1993 est.)
note: rainy season irrigation - 2,169 sq km; dry season irrigation -
750 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: floods, droughts, and blight

Environment - current issues: unexploded ordnance; deforestation; soil
erosion; a majority of the population does not have access to potable
water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Laos:People

Population: 5,497,459 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 1,191,608; female 1,173,144)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,447,788; female 1,500,016)
65 years and over: 3% (male 85,028; female 99,875) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 38.29 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.35 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 94.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.09 years
male: 51.22 years
female: 55.02 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.21 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Lao(s) or Laotian(s)
adjective: Lao or Laotian

Ethnic groups: Lao Loum (lowland) 68%, Lao Theung (upland) 22%, Lao
Soung (highland) including the Hmong ("Meo") and the Yao (Mien) 9%,
ethnic Vietnamese/Chinese 1%

Religions: Buddhist 60% (in October 1999, the regime proposed a
constitutional amendment making Buddhism the state religion; the
National Assembly is expected to vote on the amendment sometime in
2000), animist and other 40%

Languages: Lao (official), French, English, and various ethnic
languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57%
male: 70%
female: 44% (1999 est.)

@Laos:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Lao People's Democratic Republic
conventional short form: Laos
local long form: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
local short form: none

Data code: LA

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Vientiane

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural),
1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon, singular and plural), and 1 special
zone** (khetphiset, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamxai,
Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louangnamtha, Louangphabang, Oudomxai,
Phongsali, Salavan, Savannakhet, Viangchan*, Viangchan, Xaignabouli,
Xaisomboun**, Xekong, Xiangkhoang

Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1975) (proclamation of the
Lao People's Democratic Republic)

Constitution: promulgated 14 August 1991

Legal system: based on traditional customs, French legal norms and
procedures, and Socialist practice

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President KHAMTAI Siphandon (since 26 February 1998);
note - currently the position of vice president is vacant; Vice
President OUDOM Khattiya died on 9 December 1999 and a replacement has
not yet been named
head of government: Prime Minister SISAVAT Keobounphan (since 26
February 1998); Senior Deputy Prime Minister BOUN-NHANG Vorachith
(since 20 April 1996); Deputy Prime Ministers CHOUMMALI Saygnasone
(since 26 February 1998), SOMSAVAT Lengsavad (since 26 February 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by
the National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 21 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
prime minister appointed by the president with the approval of the
National Assembly for a five-year term
election results: KHAMTAI Siphandon elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (99 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - by
presidential decree, on 27 October 1997, the number of seats increased
from 85 to 99)
elections: last held 21 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LPRP
or LPRP-approved (independent, non-party members) 99

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court, the president of the People's
Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the
recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee, the vice
president of the People's Supreme Court and the judges are appointed
by the National Assembly Standing Committee

Political parties and leaders: Lao People's Revolutionary Party or
LPRP ; other parties proscribed

Political pressure groups and leaders: noncommunist political groups
proscribed; most opposition leaders fled the country in 1975

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador VANG Rattanavong
chancery: 2222 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 332-6416
FAX: (202) 332-4923

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wendy Jean CHAMBERLIN
embassy: Rue Bartholonie, B. P. 114, Vientiane
mailing address: American Embassy, Box V, APO AP 96546
telephone: (21) 212581, 212582, 212585
FAX: (21) 212584

Flag description: three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double
width), and red with a large white disk centered in the blue band

@Laos:Economy

Economy - overview: The government of Laos - one of the few remaining
official communist states - began decentralizing control and
encouraging private enterprise in 1986. The results, starting from an
extremely low base, were striking - growth averaged 7% in 1988-96.
Since mid-1996, however, reform efforts have slowed, and the economy
has suffered as a result. Because Laos depends heavily on its trade
with Thailand, it was further damaged by the regional financial crisis
beginning in 1997. From June 1997 to June 1999 the Lao kip lost 87%,
and reached a crisis point in September 1999 when it fluctuated
wildly, falling from 3,500 kip to the dollar to 9,000 kip to the
dollar in a matter of weeks. Now that the currency has stabilized,
however, the government seems content to let the current situation
persist, despite 140% inflation in 1999 and limited foreign exchange
reserves. A landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure, Laos
has no railroads, a rudimentary road system, and limited external and
internal telecommunications. Electricity is available in only a few
urban areas. Subsistence agriculture accounts for half of GDP and
provides 80% of total employment. For the foreseeable future the
economy will continue to depend on aid from the IMF and other
international sources; Japan is currently the largest bilateral aid
donor; aid from the former USSR/Eastern Europe has been cut sharply.
As in many developing countries, deforestation and soil erosion will
hamper efforts to attain a high rate of GDP growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 51%
industry: 22%
services: 27% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 46.1% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 26.4% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 140% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1 million - 1.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $202.7 million
expenditures: $385.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY97/98 est.)

Industries: tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power,
agricultural processing, construction, garments

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.34 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.99%
hydro: 97.01%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 514 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 782 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 50 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee,
sugarcane, tobacco, cotton; tea, peanuts, rice; water buffalo, pigs,
cattle, poultry

Exports: $271 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: wood products, garments, electricity, coffee,
tin

Exports - partners: Vietnam, Thailand, Germany, France, Belgium

Imports: $497 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel

Imports - partners: Thailand, Japan, Vietnam, China, Singapore, Hong
Kong

Debt - external: $2.32 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $345 million (1999 est.)

Currency: 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at

Exchange rates: new kips (NK) per US$1 - 7,674.00 (January
2000),7,102.03 (1999), 3,298.33 (1998), 1,259.98 (1997), 921.02
(1996), 804.69 (1995)
note: as of September 1995, a floating exchange rate policy was
adopted

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Laos:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 20,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,600 (1997)

Telephone system: service to general public is poor but improving,
with over 20,000 telephones currently in service and an additional
48,000 expected by 2001; the government relies on a radiotelephone
network to communicate with remote areas
domestic: radiotelephone communications
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 730,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1999)

Televisions: 52,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Laos:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 21,716 km
paved: 9,673.5 km
unpaved: 12,042.5 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897
additional km are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5
m

Pipelines: petroleum products 136 km

Ports and harbors: none

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,370 GRT/3,000 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 52 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 43
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 25 (1999 est.)

@Laos:Military

Military branches: Lao People's Army (LPA; includes militia element),
Lao People's Navy (LPN; includes riverine element), Air Force,
National Police Department

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,275,184 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 686,803 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 62,243 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $77 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.2% (FY96/97)

@Laos:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: parts of the border with Thailand are
indefinite

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest illicit opium producer (estimated
cultivation in 1999 - 21,800 hectares, a 16% decrease over 1998;
estimated potential production in 1999 - 140 metric tons, about the
same as in 1998); potential heroin producer; transshipment point for
heroin and methamphetamines produced in Burma; illicit producer of
cannabis

______________________________________________________________________



LATVIA

@Latvia:Introduction

Background: After a brief period of independence between the two World
Wars, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. It reestablished its
independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the
Russian minority (some 30% of the population) remains of concern to
Moscow. Latvia continues to revamp its economy for eventual
integration into various Western European political and economic
institutions.

@Latvia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia
and Lithuania

Geographic coordinates: 57 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 64,589 sq km
land: 64,589 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,150 km
border countries: Belarus 141 km, Estonia 339 km, Lithuania 453 km,
Russia 217 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters

Terrain: low plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Gaizinkalns 312 m

Natural resources: minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite,
hydropower, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution because of a
lack of waste conversion equipment; Gulf of Riga and Daugava River
heavily polluted; contamination of soil and groundwater with chemicals
and petroleum products at military bases

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Latvia:People

Population: 2,404,926 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 212,483; female 203,417)
15-64 years: 68% (male 777,289; female 849,967)
65 years and over: 15% (male 116,575; female 245,195) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.84% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 7.8 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.88 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.41 years
male: 62.48 years
female: 74.62 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Latvian(s)
adjective: Latvian

Ethnic groups: Latvian 56.5%, Russian 30.4%, Byelorussian 4.3%,
Ukrainian 2.8%, Polish 2.6%, other 3.4%

Religions: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox

Languages: Lettish (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 99% (1989 est.)

@Latvia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Latvia
conventional short form: Latvia
local long form: Latvijas Republika
local short form: Latvija
former: Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: LG

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Riga

Administrative divisions: 26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7
municipalities*: Aizkraukles Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons,
Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons, Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles
Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons, Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons,
Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Leipaja*, Liepajas
Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons,
Preilu Rajons, Rezekne*, Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus
Rajons, Talsu Rajons, Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons,
Ventspils*, Ventspils Rajons

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November (1918)

Constitution: the 1991 Constitutional Law which supplements the 1922
constitution, provides for basic rights and freedoms

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for Latvian citizens

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA (since 8 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Andris BERZINS (since 5 May 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
appointed by the Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term
(amended from a three-year term on 4 December 1997); election last
held 17 June 1999 (next to be held by NA June 2003); prime minister
appointed by the president
election results: Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA elected as a compromise
candidate in second phase of balloting, second round (after five
rounds in first phase failed); percent of parliamentary vote - Vaira
VIKE-FREIBERGA 53%, Valdis BIRKAVS 20%, Ingrida UDRE 9%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Saeima (100 seats;
members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms -
amended from three-year terms on 4 December 1997)
elections: last held 3 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - People's Party 21%, LC
18%, TSP 14%, TB/LNNK 14%, Social Democrats 13%, New Party 8%; seats
by party - People's Party 24, LC 21, TSP 16, TB/LNNK 17, Social
Democrats 14, New Party 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges' appointments are confirmed by
Parliament

Political parties and leaders: Anticommunist Union or PA [P.
MUCENIEKS]; Association of Latvian Social Democrats [Juris BOJARS,
Janis ADAMSONS]; Christian Democrat Union or LKDS ;
Christian People's Party or KTP (formerly People's Front of Latvia or
LTF) ; Democratic Party "Saimnieks" or DPS [Ziedonis
CEVERS, chairman]; For Fatherland and Freedom or TB ,
merged with LNNK; Green Party or LZP ; Latvian



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