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Liberal Party or LLP ; Latvian National Conservative Party
or LNNK ; Latvian National Democratic Party or LNDP
; Latvian Social-Democratic Workers Party (Social
Democrats) or LSDSP ; Latvian Socialist Party or LSP
; Latvian Unity Party or LVP ;
Latvia's Way or LC ; National Harmony Party or TSP
; New Party ; "Our Land" or MZ [M.
DAMBEKALNE]; Party for the Defense of Latvia's Defrauded People
; Party of Russian Citizens or LKPP [V. SOROCHIN, V.
IVANOV]; Political Association of the Underprivileged or MPA [B.
PELSE, V. DIMANTS, J. KALNINS]; Political Union of Economists or TPA
; People's Party

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NSG, OAS (observer),
partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Aivis RONIS
chancery: 4325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: (202) 726-8213, 8214
FAX: (202) 726-6785

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James H. HOLMES
embassy: Raina Boulevard 7, LV-1510, Riga
mailing address: American Embassy Riga, PSC 78, Box Riga, APO AE 09723
telephone: 721-0005
FAX: 782-0047

Flag description: three horizontal bands of maroon (top), white
(half-width), and maroon


Economy - overview: In 1999 Latvia, a transitional economy,
experienced zero GDP growth as it continued to feel the impact of the
August 1998 Russian financial crisis. Latvia officially joined the
World Trade Organization (WTrO) in February 1999 - the first Baltic
state to join - band was invited at the Helsinki EU Summit in December
1999 to begin accession talks in early 2000. Unemployment reached 9.6%
in 1999, up from 9.2% in 1998 and 6.7% in 1997. Privatization of large
state-owned utilities, especially the energy sector, faced more delays
in 1999, but is expected to accelerate in the next two years. Latvia
projects 3.5% GDP growth, 3% inflation, and a 2% fiscal deficit in
2000. Preparing for EU membership by 2003 remains a top foreign policy

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.8 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 29%
services: 63% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.1% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.4 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 16%, industry
41%, services 43% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 9.6% (1999 est.)

revenues: $1.33 billion
expenditures: $1.27 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: buses, vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers,
agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios,
electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; dependent on
imports for energy, raw materials, and intermediate products

Industrial production growth rate: -5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.766 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 29.58%
hydro: 70.42%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 4.882 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 400 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 850 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables;
beef, milk, eggs; fish

Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: wood and wood products, machinery and
equipment, metals, textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Germany 16%, UK 14%, Russia 12%, Sweden 10% (1998)

Imports: $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels

Imports - partners: Germany 17%, Russia 12%, Finland 10%, Sweden 7%

Debt - external: $212 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $96.2 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Latvian lat (LVL) = 100 santims

Exchange rates: lats (LVL) per US$1 - 0.583 (January 2000),0.585
(1999), 0.590 (1998), 0.581 (1997), 0.551 (1996), 0.528 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 748,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 175,348 (1999)

Telephone system: inadequate but is being modernized to provide an
international capability independent of the Moscow international
switch; more facilities are being installed for individual use
domestic: expansion underway in intercity trunk line connections,
rural exchanges, and mobile systems; still many unsatisfied subscriber
international: international connections are now available via cable
and a satellite earth station at Riga, enabling direct connections for
most calls (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 56, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.76 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 74 (1998)

Televisions: 1.22 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 11 (1999)


total: 2,412 km
broad gauge: 2,379 km 1.520-m gauge (271 km electrified) (1992)
narrow gauge: 33 km 0.750-m gauge (1994)

total: 59,178 km
paved: 22,843 km
unpaved: 36,335 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 300 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 750 km; refined products 780 km; natural gas 560
km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Daugavpils, Liepaja, Riga, Ventspils

Merchant marine:
total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 58,699 GRT/64,043 DWT
ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 6 (1999

Airports: 50 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 27 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 10 (1994 est.)


Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Security Forces, Border Guard, Home Guard (Zemessardze)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 590,236 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 463,254 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 18,239 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $60 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY99)

@Latvia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: draft treaty delimiting the boundary with
Russia has not been signed; ongoing talks over maritime boundary
dispute with Lithuania (primary concern is oil exploration rights)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Central and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and Scandinavia and Latin
American cocaine and some synthetics from Western Europe to CIS;
limited production of illicit amphetamines, ephedrine, and ecstasy for




Background: Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political
institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since 1991 and the
end of the devastating 16-year civil war. Under the Ta'if Accord - the
blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese have established
a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a
greater say in the political process while institutionalizing
sectarian divisions in the government. Since the end of the war, the
Lebanese have conducted several successful elections, most of the
militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed
Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about
two-thirds of the country. Hizballah, the radical Shi'a party, retains
its weapons. Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel
maintains troops in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy
militia, the Army of South Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of
territory contiguous to its border. Syria maintains about 25,000
troops in Lebanon based mainly in Beirut, North Lebanon, and the Bekaa
Valley. Syria's troop deployment was legitimized by the Arab League
during Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if Accord. Damascus justifies
its continued military presence in Lebanon by citing the continued
weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and the failure of the
Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in
the Ta'if Accord.


Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel
and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 33 50 N, 35 50 E

Map references: Middle East

total: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries:
total: 454 km
border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry
summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m

Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a
water-deficit region, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 860 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and
the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw
sewage and oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not
crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped
isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on
religion, clan, and ethnicity


Population: 3,578,036 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 508,936; female 489,122)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,115,457; female 1,226,448)
65 years and over: 7% (male 108,706; female 129,367) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.38% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.26 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.42 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.25 years
male: 68.87 years
female: 73.74 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Lebanese

Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups - Shi'a,
Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 30% (11
legally recognized Christian groups - 4 Orthodox Christian, 6
Catholic, 1 Protestant), Jewish NEGL%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian widely

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.4%
male: 90.8%
female: 82.2% (1997 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Lebanese Republic
conventional short form: Lebanon
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form: Lubnan

Data code: LE

Government type: republic

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (mohafazat, singular -
mohafazah); Beyrouth, Ech Chimal, Ej Jnoub, El Bekaa, Jabal Loubnane

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Constitution: 23 May 1926, amended a number of times

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and
civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for
women at age 21 with elementary education

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emile LAHUD (since 24 November 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Salim al-HUSS (since 4 December
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the
president and members of the National Assembly; the current Cabinet
was formed in 1998
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year
term; election last held 15 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2004);
prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in
consultation with the National Assembly; by custom, the president is a
Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the
speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim
election results: Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly
vote - 118 votes in favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab
(Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected
by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation
to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 August-15 September 1996 (next to be held NA
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
(one-half Christian and one-half Muslim)

Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and
commercial cases and one court for criminal cases); Constitutional
Council (called for in Ta'if Accord) rules on constitutionality of
laws; Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime
minister as needed)

Political parties and leaders: political party activity is organized
along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist,
consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by
religious, clan, and economic considerations

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, UN,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Farid ABBOUD
chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 939-6300
FAX: (202) 939-6324
consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David SATTERFIELD
embassy: Antelias, Beirut
mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut; PSC 815, Box 2, FPO AE
telephone: (4) 543600, 542600, 544133, 544130, 544131
FAX: (4) 544136

Flag description: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double
width), and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the
white band


Economy - overview: The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's
economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but
ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub.
Peace has enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut,
begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government
facilities. Economic recovery has been helped by a financially sound
banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers,
with family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm
exports, and international aid as the main sources of foreign
exchange. Lebanon's economy has made impressive gains since the launch
of "Horizon 2000," the government's $20 billion reconstruction program
in 1993. Real GDP grew 8% in 1994 and 7% in 1995 before Israel's
Operation Grapes of Wrath in April 1996 stunted economic activity.
Real GDP grew at an average annual rate of less than 3% per year for
1997 and 1998 and only 1% in 1999. During 1992-98, annual inflation
fell from more than 100% to 5%, and foreign exchange reserves jumped
to more than $6 billion from $1.4 billion. Burgeoning capital inflows
have generated foreign payments surpluses, and the Lebanese pound has
remained relatively stable. Progress also has been made in rebuilding
Lebanon's war-torn physical and financial infrastructure. Solidere, a
$2-billion firm, is managing the reconstruction of Beirut's central
business district; the stock market reopened in January 1996; and
international banks and insurance companies are returning. The
government nonetheless faces serious challenges in the economic arena.
It has had to fund reconstruction by tapping foreign exchange reserves
and boosting borrowing. Reducing the government budget deficit is a
major goal of the LAHUD government. The stalled peace process and
ongoing violence in southern Lebanon could lead to wider hostilities
that would disrupt vital capital inflows. Furthermore, the gap between
rich and poor has widened in the 1990's, resulting in grassroots
dissatisfaction over the skewed distribution of the reconstruction's
benefits and leading the government to shift its focus from rebuilding
infrastructure to improving living conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 27%
services: 61% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 28% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.3 million (1999 est.)
note: in addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers
(1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 62%, industry 31%, agriculture
7% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 18% (1997 est.)

revenues: $4.9 billion
expenditures: $8.36 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: banking; food processing; jewelry; cement; textiles;
mineral and chemical products; wood and furniture products; oil
refining; metal fabricating

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 9.7 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 90.72%
hydro: 9.28%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 9.629 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 608 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables,
potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats

Exports: $866 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: foodstuffs and tobacco, textiles, chemicals,
metal and metal products, electrical equipment and products, jewelry,
paper and paper products

Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 12%, UAE 10%, France 9%, Syria 7%, US
7%, Kuwait 4%, Jordan, Turkey (1998)

Imports: $5.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment,
consumer goods, chemicals, textiles, metals, fuels, agricultural foods

Imports - partners: Italy 12%, France 10%, US 9%, Germany 9%,
Switzerland 6%, Japan, UK, Syria (1998)

Debt - external: $8.8 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $3.5 billion (pledges 1997-2001)

Currency: 1 Lebanese pound = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds per US$1 - 1,507.5 (January 2000),
1,507.8 (1999), 1,516.1 (1998), 1,539.5 (1997), 1,571.4 (1996),
1,621.4 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 330,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 120,000 (1995)

Telephone system: telecommunications system severely damaged by civil
war; rebuilding well underway
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay and cable
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria;
microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan;
3 submarine coaxial cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 2.85 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 28 (1997)

Televisions: 1.18 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 19 (1999)


total: 399 km (mostly unusable because of damage in civil war)
standard gauge: 317 km 1.435-m
narrow gauge: 82 km (1999)

total: 7,300 km
paved: 6,200 km
unpaved: 1,100 km (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 72 km (none in operation)

Ports and harbors: Antilyas, Batroun, Beirut, Chekka, El Mina, Ez
Zahrani, Jbail, Jounie, Naqoura, Sidon, Tripoli, Tyre

Merchant marine:
total: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 346,029 GRT/536,861 DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 44, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
1, combination ore/oil 1, container 4, livestock carrier 4,
roll-on/roll-off 2, vehicle carrier 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 9 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; includes Army, Navy,
and Air Force)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 957,729 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 592,264 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $500 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4% (FY98)

@Lebanon:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since
June 1982; Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon
since October 1976

Illicit drugs: inconsequential producer of hashish; some heroin
processing mostly in the Bekaa valley; a Lebanese/Syrian eradication
campaign started in the early 1990s has practically eliminated the
opium and cannabis crops




Background: Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon
independence from the UK in 1966. Constitutional government was
restored in 1993 after 23 years of military rule.


Location: Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 29 30 S, 28 30 E

Map references: Africa

total: 30,355 sq km
land: 30,355 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 909 km
border countries: South Africa 909 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Orange and Makhaleng Rivers 1,400 m
highest point: Thabana Ntlenyana 3,482 m

Natural resources: water, agricultural and grazing land, some diamonds
and other minerals

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 66%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: population pressure forcing settlement
in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, and
soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls,
stores, and redirects water to South Africa

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine

Geography - note: landlocked; surrounded by South Africa

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