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@Lesotho:People

Population: 2,143,141
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 426,556; female 421,563)
15-64 years: 56% (male 575,580; female 619,280)
65 years and over: 4% (male 42,274; female 57,888) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.65% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 31.74 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.59 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 82.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.79 years
male: 49.78 years
female: 51.84 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.15 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)
adjective: Basotho

Ethnic groups: Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%,

Religions: Christian 80%, indigenous beliefs 20%

Languages: Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.3%
male: 81.1%
female: 62.3% (1995 est.)

@Lesotho:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
conventional short form: Lesotho
former: Basutoland

Data code: LT

Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Maseru

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe,
Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohales Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing,
Thaba-Tseka

Independence: 4 October 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 October (1966)

Constitution: 2 April 1993

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law;
judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King
LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February
1995, while his father was in exile
head of government: Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 May
1998)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: none; according to the constitution, the leader of the
majority party in the assembly automatically becomes prime minister;
the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution
which came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a
"living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative
powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to
determine who is next in the line of succession, who shall serve as
regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age, and may
even depose the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (33
members - 22 principal chiefs and 11 other members appointed by the
ruling party) and the Assembly (80 seats; members elected by popular
vote for five-year terms); note - number of seats in the Assembly rose
from 65 to 80 in the May 1998 election
elections: last held 23 May 1998 (next to be held in 2000; date to be
determined by Interim Political Authority)
election results: percent of vote by party - LCD 61%; seats by party -
LCD 79, BNP 1
note: results contested; opposition parties claimed the election was
fraudulent and staged a coup; Southern African Development Community
(SADC) forces intervened in September 1998 and restored order; the
Interim Political Authority (IPA) was set up in December 1998 to
create a new electoral system and conduct new elections within 18
months

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice appointed by the monarch;
Court of Appeal; Magistrate's Court; customary or traditional court

Political parties and leaders: Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj.
Gen. Justine Metsing LEKHANYA]; Basotholand Congress Party or BCP
[Molapo QHOBELA, leader (currently suspended), Ntsukunyane MPHANYA,
secretary general]; Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Dr.
Pakalitha MOSISILI, leader; Shakhane MOKHEHLE, secretary general] -
the governing party; United Democratic Party or UDP ;
Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP and Setlamo Alliance ;
National Progressive Party or NPP ; Sefate
Democratic Party or SDP

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lebohang Kenneth MOLEKO
chancery: 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 797-5533 through 5536
FAX: (202) 234-6815

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Katherine H. PETERSON
embassy: 254 Kingsway, Maseru West (Consular Section)
mailing address: P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho
telephone: 312666
FAX: 310116

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper half is white, bearing the brown silhouette of a large
shield with crossed spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue
band with a green triangle in the corner

@Lesotho:Economy

Economy - overview: Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho's only
important natural resource is water. Its economy is based on
subsistence agriculture, livestock, and remittances from miners
employed in South Africa. The number of such mine workers has declined
steadily over the past several years. In 1996 their remittances added
about 33% to GDP compared with the addition of roughly 67% in 1990. A
small manufacturing base depends largely on farm products which
support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries.
Agricultural products are exported primarily to South Africa. Proceeds
from membership in a common customs union with South Africa form the
majority of government revenue. Although drought has decreased
agricultural activity over the past few years, completion of a major
hydropower facility in January 1998 now permits the sale of water to
South Africa, generating royalties that will be an important source of
income for Lesotho. The pace of parastatal privatization has increased
in recent years. Civil disorder in September 1998 destroyed 80% of the
commercial infrastructure in Maseru and two other major towns. Most
firms were not covered by insurance, and the rebuilding of small and
medium business has been a significant challenge in terms of both
economic growth and employment levels. Output dropped 10% in 1998 and
recovered slowly in 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -10% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,240 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 42%
services: 44% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 49.2% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 43.4% (1986-87)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 689,000 economically active

Labor force - by occupation: 86% of resident population engaged in
subsistence agriculture; roughly 35% of the active male wage earners
work in South Africa

Unemployment rate: substantial unemployment and underemployment
affecting more than half of the labor force (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $507 million
expenditures: $487 million, including capital expenditures of $170
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts; construction;
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 19.7% (1995)

Electricity - production: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 0%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 209 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 209 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley;
livestock

Exports: $235 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: manufactures 75% (clothing, footwear, road
vehicles), wool and mohair, food and live animals (1998)

Exports - partners: South African Customs Union 65%, North America 34%
(1998)

Imports: $700 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: food; building materials, vehicles, machinery,
medicines, petroleum products (1995)

Imports - partners: South African Customs Union 90%, Asia 7% (1997)

Debt - external: $675 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $123.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente; note - maloti (M) is the plural
form of loti

Exchange rates: maloti (M) per US$1 - 6.12439 (January 2000), 6.10948
(1999), 5.52828 (1998), 4.60796 (1997), 4.29935 (1996), 3.62709
(1995); note - the Basotho loti is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Lesotho:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: rudimentary system
domestic: consists of a few landlines, a small microwave radio relay
system, and a minor radiotelephone communication system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 104,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (2000)

Televisions: 54,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Lesotho:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2.6 km; note - owned by, operated by, and included in the
statistics of South Africa
narrow gauge: 2.6 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 4,955 km
paved: 887 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 29 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 21 (1999 est.)

@Lesotho:Military

Military branches: Lesotho Defense Force (LDF; includes Army and Air
Wing), Royal Lesotho Mounted Police (RLMP)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 503,751 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 271,098 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: The Lesotho Government in 1999 began an open debate
on the future structure, size, and role of the armed forces,
especially considering the Lesotho Defense Force's (LDF) history of
intervening in political affairs.

@Lesotho:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



LIBERIA

@Liberia:Introduction

Background: Seven years of civil strife were brought to a close in
1996 when free and open presidential and legislative elections were
held. President TAYLOR now holds strong executive power with no real
political opposition. The years of fighting coupled with the flight of
most businesses has disrupted formal economic activity. A still
unsettled domestic security situation has slowed the process of
rebuilding the social and economic structure of this war-torn country.

@Liberia:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates: 6 30 N, 9 30 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 111,370 sq km
land: 96,320 sq km
water: 15,050 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,585 km
border countries: Guinea 563 km, Cote d'Ivoire 716 km, Sierra Leone
306 km

Coastline: 579 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to
cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling
plateau and low mountains in northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wuteve 1,380 m

Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 59%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara
(December to March)

Environment - current issues: tropical rain forest subject to
deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of
coastal waters from oil residue and raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

@Liberia:People

Population: 3,164,156 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 681,136; female 680,501)
15-64 years: 54% (male 826,751; female 867,402)
65 years and over: 3% (male 54,334; female 54,032) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.94% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 47.22 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 16.58 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -11.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: by the end of 1999, all Liberian refugees, who had fled the
domestic strife, were assumed to have returned

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 134.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.02 years
male: 49.6 years
female: 52.49 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.43 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Liberian(s)
adjective: Liberian

Ethnic groups: indigenous African tribes 95% (including Kpelle, Bassa,
Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and
Bella), Americo-Liberians 2.5% (descendants of immigrants from the US
who had been slaves), Congo People 2.5% (descendants of immigrants
from the Caribbean who had been slaves)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages: English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages, of
which a few can be written and are used in correspondence

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.3%
male: 53.9%
female: 22.4% (1995 est.)
note: these figures are increasing because of the improving school
system

@Liberia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Liberia
conventional short form: Liberia

Data code: LI

Government type: republic

Capital: Monrovia

Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Grand
Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland,
Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, Sinoe

Independence: 26 July 1847

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)

Constitution: 6 January 1986

Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American
common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten
tribal practices for indigenous sector

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (since 2 August
1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (since 2 August
1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president and confirmed by the
Senate
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term
(renewable); election last held 19 July 1997 (next to be held NA July
2003)
election results: Charles Ghankay TAYLOR elected president; percent of
vote - Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (NPP) 75.3%, Ellen Johnson SIRLEAF (UP)
9.6%, Alhaji KROMAH (ALCOP) 4%, other 11.1%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate
(26 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve nine-year terms)
and the House of Representatives (64 seats; members elected by popular
vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 19 July 1997 (next to be held in NA
2006); House of Representatives - last held 19 July 1997 (next to be
held in NA 2003)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NPP 21, UP 3, ALCOP 2; House of Representatives - percent of
vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 49, UP 7, ALCOP 3, Alliance
of Political Parties 2, UPP 2, LPP 1; note - the Alliance of Political
Parties was a coalition of the LAP and the Liberia Unification Party
or LUP

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: All Liberia Coalition Party or ALCOP
; Liberian Action Party or LAP ;
Liberian National Union or LINU ; Liberian
People's Party or LPP ; National
Democratic Party of Liberia or NDPL ; National
Patriotic Party or NPP - governing party;
People's Progressive Party or PPP ;
Reformation Alliance Party or RAP ;
True Whig Party or TWP ; United People's
Party or UPP ; Unity Party or UP
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate William BULL
chancery: 5303 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: (202) 723-0437
FAX: (202) 723-0436
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bismarck MYRICK
embassy: 111 United Nations Drive, Mamba Point, Monrovia
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: 226-370 through 226-382
FAX: 226-148, 226-147

Flag description: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue
square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US
flag

@Liberia:Economy

Economy - overview: A civil war in 1989-96 destroyed much of Liberia's
economy, especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Many
businessmen fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them.
Some returned during 1997. Many will not return. Richly endowed with
water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate favorable to
agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and exporter of basic
products, while local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, had been
small in scope. The democratically elected government, installed in
August 1997, inherited massive international debts and currently
relies on revenues from its maritime registry to provide the bulk of
its foreign exchange earnings. The restoration of the infrastructure
and the raising of incomes in this ravaged economy depend on the
implementation of sound macro- and micro-economic policies of the new
government, including the encouragement of foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.85 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 50%
industry: 15%
services: 35% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 80%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 8%, services
22% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 70%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: rubber processing, palm oil processing, diamonds

Industrial production growth rate: 0%

Electricity - production: 490 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 62.24%
hydro: 37.76%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 456 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rubber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava
(tapioca), palm oil, sugarcane, bananas; sheep, goats; timber

Exports: $39 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, iron ore, rubber, timber, coffee,
cocoa

Exports - partners: Benelux 36%, Norway 18%, Ukraine 15%, Singapore 9%
(1997)

Imports: $142 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation
equipment, manufactured goods; rice and other foodstuffs

Imports - partners: South Korea 38%, Japan 14%, Italy 11%, Singapore
9% (1997)

Debt - external: $3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $200 million pledged (1998)

Currency: 1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (officially
fixed rate since 1940); market exchange rate: Liberian dollars (L$)
per US$1 - 40 (December 1998), 50 (October 1995); market rate floats
against the US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Liberia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph service via microwave radio
relay network; main center is Monrovia
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 6, shortwave 4 (1999)

Radios: 790,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus four low-power repeaters)
(2000)

Televisions: 70,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Liberia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 490 km (328 km single track); note - three rail systems owned
and operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction
with the Liberian Government; one of these, the Lamco Railroad, closed
in 1989 after iron ore production ceased; the other two were shut down
by the civil war; large sections of the rail lines have been
dismantled; approximately 60 km of railroad track was exported for
scrap
standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 145 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 10,600 km (there is major deterioration on all highways due to
heavy rains and lack of maintenance)
paved: 657 km
unpaved: 9,943 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Buchanan, Greenville, Harper, Monrovia

Merchant marine:
total: 1,593 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 54,513,479
GRT/85,495,576 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 3, bulk 360, cargo 109, chemical tanker
185, combination bulk 22, combination ore/oil 50, container 225,
liquified gas 91, multi-functional large load carrier 1, passenger 40,
petroleum tanker 351, refrigerated cargo 76, roll-on/roll-off 16,
short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 15, vehicle carrier 46 (1999
est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 54 countries
among which are Germany 186, US 161, Norway 142, Greece 144, Japan
124, Hong Kong 100, China 53, UK 32, Singapore 39, and Monaco 38 (1998
est.)

Airports: 45 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 43
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 35 (1999 est.)

@Liberia:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Navy

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 703,107 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 378,426 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY98)

@Liberia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly a transshipment point for Southeast and
Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine for the European and
US markets

______________________________________________________________________



LIBYA

@Libya:Introduction

Background: Since he took power in a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar
Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a



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