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combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third
International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader, he
used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology
outside Libya, even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to
hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures
failed, e.g., the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou
Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987. Libyan support
for terrorism decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. Those
sanctions were suspended in April 1999.

@Libya:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Egypt and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 4,383 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger
354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees 30 minutes north

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus,
depressions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind
lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: desertification; very limited natural
fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest
water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water
from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

@Libya:People

Population: 5,115,450
note: includes 162,669 non-nationals (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 938,476; female 899,139)
15-64 years: 60% (male 1,595,306; female 1,485,069)
65 years and over: 4% (male 97,770; female 99,690) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 27.68 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 3.51 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.45 years
male: 73.34 years
female: 77.66 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.71 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians,
Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the
major cities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.2%
male: 87.9%
female: 63% (1995 est.)

@Libya:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al
Ishtirakiyah
local short form: none

Data code: LY

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory,
governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military
dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al
Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az
Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha,
Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan
note: the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law;
separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar
al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title,
but is de facto chief of state
head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee
(Premier) Mubarak al-SHAMEKH (since 2 March 2000)
cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General
People's Congress
elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of
people's committees; head of government elected by the General
People's Congress; election last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: Mubarak al-SHAMEKH elected head of government;
percent of General People's Congress vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats;
members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: various Arab nationalist
movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning
clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Libya does not have an embassy in
the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US suspended all embassy
activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980

Flag description: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam
(the state religion)

@Libya:Economy

Economy - overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily
upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all
export earnings and about one-quarter of GDP. These oil revenues and a
small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in
Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of
society. In this statist society, import restrictions and inefficient
resource allocations have led to periodic shortages of basic goods and
foodstuffs. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which
account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly
agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals,
iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely
limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food
requirements. Higher oil prices in 1999 led to an increase in export
revenues and helped to stimulate the economy. Following the suspension
of UN sanctions in 1999, Libya has been trying to increase its
attractiveness to foreign investors, and several foreign companies
have visited in search of contracts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 47%
services: 46% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.2 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services and government 54%, industry
29%, agriculture 17% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.6 billion
expenditures: $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 16.92 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 15.736 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus,
vegetables, peanuts; beef, eggs

Exports: $6.6 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural
gas

Exports - partners: Italy 40%, Germany 17%, Spain 12%, France 4%,
Sudan 4%, UK 3% (1997)

Imports: $7 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food,
manufactured goods

Imports - partners: Italy 23%, Germany 12%, UK 9%, France 7%, Tunisia
5%, Belgium 4% (1997)

Debt - external: $4 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $8.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.4687 (January 2000),
0.4616 (1999), 0.3785 (1998), 0.3891 (1997), 0.3651 (1996), 0.3532
(1995); official rate: 0.45 (December 1998)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Libya:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 318,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: telecommunications system is being modernized;
mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric
scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and
NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio
relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece;
participant in Medarabtel (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 4, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 1.35 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus one low-power repeater) (1997)

Televisions: 730,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Libya:Transportation

Railways:
note: Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous
systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a
1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and
Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but
there has been little progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt
would establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with
completion originally set for mid-1994; Libya signed contracts with
Bahne of Egypt and Jez Sistemas Ferroviarios in 1998 for the supply of
crossings and pointwork

Highways:
total: 83,200 km
paved: 47,590 km
unpaved: 35,610 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes
liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km

Ports and harbors: Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah,
Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah

Merchant marine:
total: 27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 401,303 GRT/656,632 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, liquified gas 3, petroleum
tanker 6, roll-on/roll-off 4, short-sea passenger 4 (1999 est.)

Airports: 142 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 59
over 3,047 m: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 83
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 42
under 914 m: 19 (1999 est.)

@Libya:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,415,305 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 841,039 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 62,200 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Libya:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia;
Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger and part of
southeastern Algeria

______________________________________________________________________



LIECHTENSTEIN

@Liechtenstein:Introduction

Background: The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within
the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806.
Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the
economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to
conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World
War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low
taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth.

@Liechtenstein:Geography

Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates: 47 10 N, 9 32 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 76 km
border countries: Austria 35 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain;
cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly
landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations
based on elevation

@Liechtenstein:People

Population: 32,207 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 2,970; female 2,988)
15-64 years: 71% (male 11,379; female 11,370)
65 years and over: 11% (male 1,393; female 2,107) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 11.83 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.64 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.81 years
male: 75.16 years
female: 82.47 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups: Alemannic 87.5%, Italian, Turkish, and other 12.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 7.4%, unknown 7.7%, other
4.9% (1996)

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1981 est.)

@Liechtenstein:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein

Data code: LS

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (Gemeinden, singular -
Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan,
Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein
established; 12 July 1806 established independence from the Holy Roman
Empire

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed
executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und
zu Liechtenstein, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968)
head of government: Head of Government Mario FRICK (since 15 December
1993) and Deputy Head of Government Michael RITTER (since 2 February
1997)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Diet; confirmed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative
elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is usually
appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the
largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the deputy
head of government by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet or Landtag (25 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote under proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 2 February 1997 (next to be held by NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - VU 50.1%, FBPL 41.3%, FL
8.5%; seats by party - VU 13, FBPL 10, FL 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court
or Obergericht

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald
KRANZ]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBPL ; The Free
List or FL [Christel HILTI, Hansjorg HILTI, Helen MARXER, Hugo RISCH,
Margrit WILLE]

International organization participation: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA,
ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Liechtenstein does not have an
embassy in the US, but is represented by the Swiss embassy in routine
diplomatic matters

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also
accredited to Liechtenstein

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red
with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

@Liechtenstein:Economy

Economy - overview: Despite its small size and limited natural
resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly
industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service
sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large
European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 18% -
and easy incorporation rules have induced about 73,700 holding or
so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country
participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss
franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy
requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic
Area (an organization serving as a bridge between European Free Trade
Association (EFTA) and EU) since May 1995. The government is working
to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $730 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 22,891 of which 13,847 are foreigners; 8,231 commute from
Austria and Switzerland to work each day

Labor force - by occupation: industry, trade, and building 45%,
services 53%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 2%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.8% (February 1999)

Budget:
revenues: $424.2 million
expenditures: $414.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,
pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 150 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock,
dairy products

Exports: $2.47 billion (1996)

Exports - commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products,
stamps, hardware, pottery

Exports - partners: EU and EFTA countries 60.57% (Switzerland 15.7%)
(1995)

Imports: $917.3 million (1996)

Imports - commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs,
motor vehicles

Imports - partners: EU countries, Switzerland (1996)

Debt - external: $0 (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SFR) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SFR) per US$1 -
1.5878 (January 2000), 1.5022 (1999), 1.4498 (1998), 1.4513 (1997),
1.2360 (1996), 1.1825 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Liechtenstein:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio
relay

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 21,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)

Televisions: 12,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 115 (Liechtenstein and Switzerland)
(1999)

@Liechtenstein:Transportation

Railways:
total: 18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of
Austrian Federal Railways
standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

Highways:
total: 250 km
paved: 250 km
unpaved: 0 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@Liechtenstein:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Switzerland

@Liechtenstein:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech
Republic confiscated from its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic
insists that restitution does not go back before February 1948, when
the communists seized power

______________________________________________________________________



LITHUANIA

@Lithuania:Introduction

Background: Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was
annexed by the USSR in 1940. In March of 1990, Lithuania became the
first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but this
proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991
(following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops
withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently has restructured its economy
for eventual integration into Western European institutions.

@Lithuania:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and
Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 65,200 sq km
land: 65,200 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,273 km
border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia
(Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate
winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 430 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater



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