Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 66 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 66 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


males age 15-49: 111,882 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 92,238 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,563 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $131 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY98)

@Luxembourg:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



MACAU

@Macau:Introduction

Background: Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was
the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an
agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became
the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December
1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems"
formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in
Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all
matters except foreign and defense affairs.

@Macau:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 10 N, 113 33 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 21 sq km
land: 21 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 0.34 km
border countries: China 0.34 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: not specified

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Coloane Alto 174 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges
connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on
mainland

@Macau:People

Population: 445,594 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 53,986; female 50,379)
15-64 years: 69% (male 146,474; female 162,672)
65 years and over: 8% (male 12,932; female 19,151) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.83% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.54 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 3.64 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.6 years
male: 78.8 years
female: 84.55 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian
ancestry), Portuguese, other

Religions: Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997
est.)

Languages: Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90%
male: 93%
female: 86% (1981 est.)

@Macau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Macau
local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao
Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)
local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)

Data code: MC

Dependency status: special administrative region of China

Government type: NA

Administrative divisions: none (special administrative region of
China)

Independence: none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday: National Day, 1-2 October; note - 20 December 1999
is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day

Constitution: Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National
People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent
residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election
limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are
currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from
broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central
government bodies

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)
head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20
December 1999)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of all five government
secretaries, three legislators, and two businessmen
elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (23 seats;
8 elected by popular vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the
chief executive; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held by 15 October
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
APPEM 2, UNIPRO 2, CODEM 1, UDM 1, UPD 1, ANMD 1

Judicial branch: The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special
Administrative Region

Political parties and leaders: the following is a listing of those
associations that participated in the last legislative elections:
Associacao de Novo Macau Democratico or ANMD ; Associacao
Promotora para a Economia de Macau or APPEM ; Convergencia
para o Desenvolvimento or CODEM ; Uniao Geral para o
Desenvolvimento de Macau or UDM ; Uniao para o
Desenvolvimento or UPD ; Uniao Promotora para o Progresso
or UNIPRO
note: there are no formal political parties, but civic associations
are used instead

Political pressure groups and leaders: Catholic Church [Domingos LAM,
bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley
HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG
Kuok-cheong, leader]

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO
(associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO
(associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (special administrative
region of China)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US has no offices in Macau,
and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong
Kong

Flag description: light green with a lotus flower above a stylized
bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed
stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller

@Macau:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including
gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to
diversify have spawned other small industries - toys, artificial
flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly
25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about three-fourths
of export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40%
of GDP. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and
energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw
materials and capital goods. Output dropped 4% in 1998 and the economy
remained weak in 1999. Macau reverted to Chinese administration on 20
December 1999. Gang violence, a dark spot in the economy, probably
will be reduced in 2000 to the advantage of the tourism sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.65 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -4% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,500 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 40%
services: 59% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 281,117 (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 31%, restaurants and hotels 28%,
other services 41%

Unemployment rate: 6.9% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $1.34 billion
expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $260
million (1998 est.)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, electronics, footwear, tourism,
gambling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.34 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.42 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 1 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 175 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: textiles, clothing, toys, electronics, cement,
footwear, machinery

Exports - partners: US 48%, EU 31%, Hong Kong 8%, China 7% (1998)

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods,
fuels, consumer goods

Imports - partners: China 33%, Hong Kong 24%, EU 11%, Taiwan 10%,
Japan 8% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.7 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.01 (January 2000), 7.99
(1999), 7.98 (1998), 7.99 (1997), 7.962 (1996), 8.034 (1993-95); note
- linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong
Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Macau:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 222,500 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 55,000 (1998)

Telephone system: fairly modern communication facilities maintained
for domestic and international services
domestic: NA
international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to
international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and
China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 160,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (receives Hong Kong broadcasts)
(1997)

Televisions: 49,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Macau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Macau

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Macau:Military

Military branches: Macau garrison of China's People's Liberation Army
(PLA) includes about 500 troops

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 123,581 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 67,974 (2000 est.)

Military - note: responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20
December 1999

@Macau:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



MACEDONIA

______________________________________________________________________



MADAGASCAR

@Madagascar:Introduction

Background: Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a
French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During
1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held,
ending 17 years of single-party rule.

@Madagascar:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 587,040 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz,
tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 41%
forests and woodland: 40%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation
and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw
sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna
unique to the island are endangered

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location
along Mozambique Channel

@Madagascar:People

Population: 15,506,472 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 3,504,562; female 3,481,056)
15-64 years: 52% (male 3,964,564; female 4,052,056)
65 years and over: 3% (male 237,691; female 266,543) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 42.92 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.69 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 85.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.95 years
male: 52.71 years
female: 57.26 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.84 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo),
Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry -
Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian,
Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80%
male: 88%
female: 73% (1990 est.)

@Madagascar:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
local short form: Madagascar
former: Malagasy Republic

Data code: MA

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo,
Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional
Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO
(since NA 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates
nominated by the National Assembly
election results: Didier RATSIRAKA elected president; percent of vote
- Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (AFFA) 49.3%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become
a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds
of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies
whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third
of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of
seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will
serve four-year terms
elections: National Assembly - last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held
NA 2002)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6,
MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 32

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional
Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle

Political parties and leaders: Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony
or AFFA ; Association for the Rebirth of
Madagascar or AREMA ; Congress Party for
Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana [Pastor Richard
ANDRIAMANJATO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National
Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo ; Fihaonana Rally or
Fihaonana ; Group of Reflection and Action for the
Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo ;
Judged by Your Work or AVI ; Movement for the
Progress of Madagascar or MFM ; National Union
for Development and Democracy or UNDD; Renewal of the Social
Democratic Party or RPSD

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federalist Movement; National
Council of Christian Churches or FFKM

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Biclair Henri
ANDRIANANTOANDRO
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 265-5525, 5526
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Shirley E. BARNES
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo
telephone: (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18
FAX: (2) 345-39

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

@Madagascar:Economy

Economy - overview: Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition,
underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual
population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied
by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the
mainstay of the economy, accounting for 34% of GDP and contributing
more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile
manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in
output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the
population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and
demonstrations, a decline in world coffee demand, and the erratic
commitment of the government to economic reform. Formidable obstacles
stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth
potential; the extent of government reforms, outside financial aid,
and foreign investment will be key determinants. Growth should be in
the 5% range in 2000-01.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $780 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 34%
industry: 12%
services: 54% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 34.9% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 7 million (1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $553 million
expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar,
textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper,
petroleum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 750 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 33.33%
hydro: 66.67%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 698 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa,
rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Exports: $600 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves, shellfish,
sugar, petroleum products (1995 est.)

Exports - partners: France 40%, US 9%, Germany 8%, Japan 6%, UK 6%
(1997)

Imports: $881 million (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods
28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13% (1995 est.)

Imports - partners: France 39%, Hong Kong 5%, Japan 5%, China,
Singapore (1997)

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $838 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 6,302.9 (October
1999), 5,877.81 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997), 4,061.3
(1996), 4,265.6 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Madagascar:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 33,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: system is above average for the region
domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter links
international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations -
1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2 (plus 8 repeater stations), FM 7,
shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 3.05 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 325,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@Madagascar:Transportation

Railways:
total: 883 km
narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 49,837 km
paved: 5,781 km
unpaved: 44,056 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small
portions of Lakandranon' Ampangalana (Canal des Pangalanes)

Ports and harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga,
Toamasina, Toliara

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,819 GRT/34,173 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, liquified gas 1, petroleum
tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 133 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 104
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 59
under 914 m: 42 (1999 est.)

@Madagascar:Military

Military branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces,
Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force),
Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,525,754 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,092,308 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 149,157 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $29 million (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY94)

@Madagascar:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island,
Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all
administered by France)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point
for heroin

______________________________________________________________________



MALAWI

@Malawi:Introduction

Background: Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland
became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades
of one-party rule, the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under
a provisional constitution, which took full effect the following year.

@Malawi:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S, 34 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 118,480 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
water: 24,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 2,881 km
border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 66 of 140)