Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 67 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 67 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


to November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills,
some mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary
with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources: limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited
deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 34%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water
pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes;
siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Malawi:People

Population: 10,385,849
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,335,440; female 2,324,012)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,671,580; female 2,766,560)
65 years and over: 3% (male 117,932; female 170,325) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.61% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 38.49 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 22.44 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 122.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 37.58 years
male: 37.2 years
female: 37.98 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni,
Ngonde, Asian, European

Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, indigenous
beliefs

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages
important regionally

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58%
male: 72.8%
female: 43.4% (1999 est.)

@Malawi:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
former: Nyasaland

Data code: MI

Government type: multiparty democracy

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa,
Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga
(Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata
Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
note: there may be three new districts named Balaka, Likoma, and
Phalombe

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 July (1964); Republic Day 6 July
(1966)

Constitution: 18 May 1995

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: 28-member cabinet named by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Bakili MULUZI reelected president; percent of vote -
Bakili MULUZI (UDF) 51.4%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MCP-AFORD) 44.3%

Legislative branch: National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - UDF 48%, MCP 34%, AFORD
15%, others 3%; seats by party - UDF 93, MCP 66, AFORD 29, others 4,
vacancy 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court, chief justice
appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of
the Judicial Service Commission; magistrate's courts

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD
; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda
CHAKUAMBA, president, John TEMBO, vice president]; Malawi Democratic
Party or MDP ; Social Democratic Party or
SDP ; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili
MULUZI] - governing party

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW,
SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Willie CHOKANI
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 797-1007

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Ellen SHIPPY
embassy: address NA, in new development area in Lilongwe
mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: 783 166
FAX: 780 471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band

Government - note: the executive exerts considerable influence over
the legislature

@Malawi:Economy

Economy - overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least
developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with
about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture
accounts for 37% of GDP and 85% of export revenues. The economy
depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF,
the World Bank, and individual donor nations. The government faces
strong challenges, e.g., to spur exports, to improve educational and
health facilities, to face up to environmental problems of
deforestation and erosion, and to deal with the rapidly growing
problem of HIV/AIDS.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $940 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 37%
industry: 29%
services: 34% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 54% (1990-91 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 45% (1999)

Labor force: 3.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 86%, wage earners 14% (1990
est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $490 million
expenditures: $523 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY99/00 est.)

Industries: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer
goods

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 922 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.39%
hydro: 97.61%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 857 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn,
potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats

Exports: $510 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts,
wood products

Exports - partners: South Africa 15%, US 9%, Germany 9%, Netherlands
7%, Japan (1998)

Imports: $512 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures,
consumer goods, transportation equipment

Imports - partners: South Africa 38%, Zimbabwe 18%, Zambia 8%, Japan
4%, US, UK, Germany (1998)

Debt - external: $2.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $416.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwachas (MK) per US$1 - 46.3494 (December
1999), 44.0881 (1999), 31.0727 (1998), 16.4442 (1997), 15.3085 (1996),
15.2837 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Malawi:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 34,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 382 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links,
and radiotelephone communications stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4 (plus 15 repeater stations),
shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.6 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 0 (1999)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Malawi:Transportation

Railways:
total: 789 km
narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 28,400 km
paved: 5,254 km
unpaved: 23,146 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports and harbors: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota,
Chilumba

Airports: 44 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 23 (1999 est.)

@Malawi:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment),
Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,397,385 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,229,676 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $17 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.8% (FY96/97)

@Malawi:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

______________________________________________________________________



MALAYSIA

@Malaysia:Introduction

Background: Malaysia was created in 1963 through the merging of Malaya
(independent in 1957) and the former British Singapore, both of which
formed West Malaysia, and Sabah and Sarawak in north Borneo, which
composed East Malaysia. The first three years of independence were
marred by hostilities with Indonesia. Singapore seceded from the union
in 1965.

@Malaysia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the
island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south
of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 329,750 sq km
land: 328,550 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,669 km
border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
specified boundary in the South China Sea
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast
(October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural
gas, bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 68%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,941 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation;
smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and
southern South China Sea

@Malaysia:People

Population: 21,793,293 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 3,914,112; female 3,697,731)
15-64 years: 61% (male 6,655,506; female 6,642,073)
65 years and over: 4% (male 386,387; female 497,484) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.01% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.3 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.25 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal
immigrants from other countries in the region

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.83 years
male: 68.22 years
female: 73.63 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.29 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 58%, Chinese 26%, Indian 7%,
others 9%

Religions: Islam, Buddhism, Daoism, Hinduism, Christianity, Sikhism;
note - in addition, Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia

Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese dialects
(Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu,
Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai; note - in addition, in East Malaysia several
indigenous languages are spoken, the largest of which are Iban and
Kadazan

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.5%
male: 89.1%
female: 78.1% (1995 est.)

@Malaysia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
former: Malayan Union

Data code: MY

Government type: constitutional monarchy
note: Malaya (what is now Peninsular Malaysia) formed 31 August 1957;
Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore) formed
9 July 1963 (Singapore left the federation on 9 August 1965);
nominally headed by the paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament
consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house;
Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka,
Penang, Sabah, and Sarawak, where governors are appointed by the
Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by the
federal constitution; under terms of the federation, Sabah and Sarawak
retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., the right to
maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah - holds 20 seats in
House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal
security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak -
holds 28 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs,
defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal
government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri)
and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular -
wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri
Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak,
Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*
note: the city of Kuala Lumpur is located within the federal territory
of Wilayah Persekutuan; the terms therefore are not interchangeable

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of
the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Paramount Ruler Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz
Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April
1999); Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum
Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16
July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 8
January 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler
elections: paramount ruler and deputy paramount ruler elected by and
from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms;
election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime
minister designated from among the members of the House of
Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the
party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives
becomes prime minister
election results: Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni
Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah elected paramount ruler; Sultan
MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah
elected deputy paramount ruler

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of
nonelected Senate or Dewan Negara (69 seats; 43 appointed by the
paramount ruler, 26 appointed by the state legislatures) and the House
of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (193 seats; members elected by
popular vote weighted toward the rural Malay population to serve
five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 29 November 1999 (next
to be held 3 November 2004)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NF 56%, other 44%; seats by party - NF 148, PAS 27, DAP 10, NJP 5,
PBS 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the paramount
ruler on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: State Reform Party or STAR [PATAV
Rubis]; Democratic Action Party or DAP ; Gerakan Rakyat
Malaysia ; Liberal Democratic Party ;
Malaysian Chinese Association or MCA ; Malaysian
Indian Congress or MIC ; National Front or NF [MAHATHIR
bin Mohamad] (a coalition of 14 political parties, dominated by the
UMNO, and including the UPKO, SAPP, and the Liberal Democratic Party);
National Justice Party or NJP ; Parti Akar
; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak or PBDS [Datuk
Leo MOGGIE]; Parti Bersekutu ; Parti Islam SeMalaysia
or PAS ; Party Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or
PBB ; Sabah People's
Progressive Party or SAPP ; Sabah People's United Party
(Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah) or PBRS ; Sarawak
National Party or SNAP ; Sarawak United
People's Party or SUPP ; United
Kadazan People's Organization or UPKO (formerly Parti Demokratik
Sabah) ; United Malays National Organization or UMNO
; United Sabah Party (main opposition party) (Parti Bersatu
Sabah) or PBS
note: subsequent to the election, the following parties were dissolved
- Spirit of '46 or Semangat '46
and Sabah United Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS [Datuk Seri Joseph
PAIRIN Kitingan]

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC,
CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dato' GHAZZALI Sheikh Abdul Khalid
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 328-2700
FAX: (202) 483-7661
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador B. Lynn PASCOE
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur; American
Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: (3) 2168-5000
FAX: (3) 242-2207

Flag description: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating
with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star;
the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design
was based on the flag of the US

@Malaysia:Economy

Economy - overview: Malaysia made a quick economic recovery in 1999
from its worst recession since independence in 1957. GDP grew 5%,
responding to a dynamic export sector, which grew over 10% and fiscal
stimulus from higher government spending. The large export surplus has
enabled the country to build up its already substantial financial
reserves, to $31 billion at yearend 1999. This stable macroeconomic
environment, in which both inflation and unemployment stand at 3% or
less, has made possible the relaxation of most of the capital controls
imposed by the government in 1998 to counter the impact of the Asian
financial crisis. Government and private forecasters expect Malaysia
to continue this trend in 2000, predicting GDP to grow another 5% to
6%. While Malaysia's immediate economic horizon looks bright, its
long-term prospects are clouded by the lack of reforms in the
corporate sector, particularly those dealing with competitiveness and
high corporate debt.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $229.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 46%
services: 42% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 6.8% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 20.4% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1999)

Labor force: 9.3 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: manufacturing 27%, agriculture, forestry,
and fisheries 16%, local trade and tourism 17%, services 15%,
government 10%, construction 9% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $23.2 billion
expenditures: $27.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and
manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining
and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging,
petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum
production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 57.435 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 94.78%
hydro: 5.22%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 53.423 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 75 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 83 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, rice;
Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak -
rubber, pepper; timber

Exports: $83.5 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied
natural gas, chemicals, palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber,
textiles

Exports - partners: US 23%, Singapore 16%, Japan 11%, Hong Kong 5%,
Netherlands 5%, Taiwan 5%, Thailand 3% (1999 est.)

Imports: $61.5 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, fuel
and lubricants

Imports - partners: Japan 21%, US 18%, Singapore 14%, Taiwan 5%, South
Korea 5%, Thailand 4%, China 3% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $43.6 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 3.8000 (January 2000), 3.8000
(1999), 3.9244 (1998), 2.8133 (1997), 2.5159 (1996), 2.5044 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Malaysia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.4 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.17 million (1998)

Telephone system: international service good
domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia
mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio
relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite
system with 2 earth stations
international: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore;



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 67 of 140)