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Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

@Mali:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,202,950 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,262,242 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $49 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96)

@Mali:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



MALTA

@Malta:Introduction

Background: Great Britain formally acquired possession of Malta in
1814. The island staunchly supported the UK through both World Wars
and remained in the Commonwealth when it became independent in 1964. A
decade later Malta became a republic. Over the last 15 years, the
island has become a major freight transshipment point, financial
center, and tourist destination. It is an official candidate for EU
membership.

@Malta:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Sicily (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 316 sq km
land: 316 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal
cliffs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Ta'Dmejrek 253 m (near Dingli)

Natural resources: limestone, salt, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 38%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 59% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; increasing reliance on desalination

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: the country comprises an archipelago, with only the
three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino)
being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors

@Malta:People

Population: 391,670 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 41,046; female 38,273)
15-64 years: 67% (male 132,692; female 131,532)
65 years and over: 13% (male 20,091; female 28,036) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.74% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.75 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.94 years
male: 75.49 years
female: 80.62 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective: Maltese

Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and
Phoenicians, with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean
stock)

Religions: Roman Catholic 91%

Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 88%
male: 88%
female: 88% (1985)

@Malta:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Malta
conventional short form: Malta
local long form: Repubblika ta' Malta
local short form: Malta

Data code: MT

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administered directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964)

Constitution: 1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December
1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Guido DE MARCO (since 4 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Eddie FENECH ADAMI (since 6
September 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Lawrence GONZE (since 4 May
1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
minister
elections: president elected by the House of Representatives for a
five-year term; election last held NA April 1999 (next to be held by
NA April 2004); following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed
prime minister by the president for a five-year term; the deputy prime
minister is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
minister
election results: Guido DE MARCO elected president; percent of House
of Representatives vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (usually 65
seats; note - additional seats are given to the party with the largest
popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total: 65
seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of
proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 5 September 1998 (next to be held by September
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - PN 51.8%, MLP 46.9%, AD
1.2%; seats by party - PN 35, MLP 30

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed by the
president on the advice of the prime minister; Court of Appeal, judges
are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for
Social Justice or AD ; Malta Labor Party or MLP
; Nationalist Party or PN

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador George SALIBA
chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 462-3611, 3612
FAX: (202) 387-5470
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Haycock PROFFITT
embassy: 3rd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana,
mailing address: P. O. Box 535, Valletta
telephone: 235960
FAX: 243229

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and
red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George
Cross, edged in red

@Malta:Economy

Economy - overview: Major resources are limestone, a favorable
geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only
about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has
no domestic energy sources. The economy is dependent on foreign trade,
manufacturing (especially electronics and textiles), and tourism; the
state-owned Malta drydocks employs about 3,800 people. In 1999, over 1
million tourists visited the island. Per capita GDP of $13,800 places
Malta in the ranks of the less affluent EU countries. The island is
divided politically over the question of joining the EU. The sizable
budget deficit remains a key concern.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $13,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 26%
services: 71% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 143,700 (October 1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 24%, services 71%, agriculture
5% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (September 1999)

Budget:
revenues: $1.32 billion
expenditures: $1.76 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: tourism; electronics, ship building and repair,
construction; food and beverages, textiles, footwear, clothing,
tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.62 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.507 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley,
tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry,
eggs

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactures

Exports - partners: France 20.7%, US 18.1%, Germany 12.6%, UK 7.7%,
Italy 4.8% (1998)

Imports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods; food, drink, and tobacco

Imports - partners: Italy 19.3%, France 17.8%, UK 12.4%, Germany
10.5%, US 8.9% (1998)

Debt - external: $130 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.4086 (January 2000),
0.3994 (1999), 0.3885 (1998), 0.3857 (1997), 0.3604 (1996), 0.3529
(1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Malta:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 171,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 15,650 (1999)

Telephone system: automatic system satisfies normal requirements
domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 18, shortwave 6 (1999)

Radios: 255,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (1999)

Televisions: 280,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (1999)

@Malta:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,742 km
paved: 1,677 km
unpaved: 65 km (1997 est.)

Ports and harbors: Marsaxlokk, Valletta

Merchant marine:
total: 1,484 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,083,952
GRT/46,772,146 DWT
ships by type: bulk 431, cargo 424, chemical tanker 54, combination
bulk 16, combination ore/oil 14, container 64, liquified gas 2,
livestock carrier 3, multi-functional large load carrier 4, passenger
7, petroleum tanker 331, refrigerated cargo 44, roll-on/roll-off 48,
short-sea passenger 21, specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 16 (1999
est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 49 countries
among which includes Greece 445, Russia 51, Switzerland 45, Italy 44,
Norway 40, Croatia 26, Turkey 35, Germany 32, Georgia 23, and Monaco
24 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Malta:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (including land forces, an air
squadron, a maritime squadron, and the Revenue Security Corps),
Maltese Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 98,850 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 78,677 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $201 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.5% (FY98/99)

@Malta:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Malta and Tunisia are discussing the
commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their
countries, particularly for oil exploration

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa
to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



MAN

______________________________________________________________________



MARSHALL ISLANDS

@Marshall Islands:Introduction

Background: After almost four decades under US administration as the
easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the
Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free
Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear
testing on some of the islands between 1947 and 1962.

@Marshall Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific
Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 181.3 sq km
land: 181.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein

Area - comparative: about the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands
border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed
minerals

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 60%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and
1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites;
Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US
missile test range

@Marshall Islands:People

Population: 68,126 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (male 17,204; female 16,521)
15-64 years: 48% (male 16,826; female 16,111)
65 years and over: 2% (male 693; female 771) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.88% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 45.17 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.5 years
male: 63.72 years
female: 67.36 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.61 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)
adjective: Marshallese

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant)

Languages: English (universally spoken and is the official language),
two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family,
Japanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 100%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

@Marshall Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands
conventional short form: Marshall Islands
former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands)

Data code: RM

Government type: constitutional government in free association with
the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October
1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: 33 municipalities; Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap,
Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat,
Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap,
Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang,
Utirik, Wotho, Wotje

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall
Islands, 1 May (1979)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of
Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members
for a four-year term; election last held 15 November 1999 (next to be
held NA November 2003)
election results: Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of
Parliament vote - 100%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Nitijela (33 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held NA November 1999 (next to be held NA November
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
note: the Council of Chiefs is a 12-member body that advises on
matters affecting customary law and practice

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: traditionally there have been no
formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely
resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party
headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two
"groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years -
Kabua Party and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa
TOMLING]

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory
user), Interpol, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Banny DE BRUM
chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-5414
FAX: (202) 232-3236
consulate(s) general: Honolulu

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joan M. PLAISTED
embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro
mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall
Islands 96960-1379
telephone: 247-4011
FAX: 247-4012

Flag description: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower
hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with
four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two
stripes

@Marshall Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: US Government assistance is the mainstay of this
tiny island economy. Agricultural production is concentrated on small
farms, and the most important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes,
melons, and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to
handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry, now a
small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor
force, remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have
few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms
of the Compact of Free Association, the US provides roughly $65
million in annual aid. Negotiations were underway in 1999 for an
extended agreement. Government downsizing, drought, a drop in
construction, and the decline in tourism and foreign investment due to
the Asian financial difficulties caused GDP to fall in 1996-98.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $105 million (1998 est.), supplemented
by approximately $65 million annual US aid

GDP - real growth rate: -5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,670 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 13%
services: 72% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1997)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 16% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $80.1 million
expenditures: $77.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.5
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and
pearls, offshore banking (embryonic)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 57 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: 57 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1994)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1994)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits;
pigs, chickens

Exports: $28 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports - commodities: fish, coconut oil, fish, trochus shells

Exports - partners: US, Japan, Australia

Imports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels,
beverages and tobacco

Imports - partners: US, Japan, Australia, NZ, Guam, Singapore

Debt - external: $125 million (FY96/97 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: approximately $65 million annually from the
US

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Marshall Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 280 (1994)

Telephone system: telex services
domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular,
seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by
shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean);
US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3 (of which two are US military
stations) (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Marshall Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise
stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports and harbors: Majuro

Merchant marine:
total: 143 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,801,336 GRT/11,785,065
DWT
ships by type: bulk 48, cargo 8, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk
1, container 19, liquified gas 2, multi-functional large load carrier
1, petroleum tanker 58, vehicle carrier 1 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes the ships of Canada 1,
China 1, Germany 1, Japan 1, and US 7 (1998 est.)

Airports: 16 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)

@Marshall Islands:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces (a coast guard may be
established); Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Marshall Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims US territory of Wake Island

______________________________________________________________________



MARTINIQUE

@Martinique:Introduction

Background: Colonized by France in 1635, the island has subsequently
remained a French possession except for three brief periods of foreign
occupation.

@Martinique:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 1,100 sq km
land: 1,060 sq km
water: 40 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than six times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to



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