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from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The
agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and
updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower
pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current
administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits
(gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over
the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the
breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet
Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth
rates in 1995-99. Armenia also managed to slash inflation and to
privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy
shortages Armenia suffered in recent years have been largely offset by
the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor.
Continued Russian financial difficulties have hurt the trade sector
especially, but have been offset by international aid, domestic
restructuring, and foreign direct investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 25%
services: 35% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 45% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1999)

Labor force: 1.5 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 55%, services 25%,
manufacturing, mining, and construction 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1998 est.)
note: official rate is 9.3% for 1998

Budget:
revenues: $360 million
expenditures: $566 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines,
electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric,
washing machines, chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments,
microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1998)

Electricity - production: 5.764 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 48.92%
hydro: 26.44%
nuclear: 24.64%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.361 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables;
livestock

Exports: $240 million (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, scrap metal, machinery and equipment,
cognac, copper ore

Exports - partners: Belgium, Russia, Iran, Turkmenistan, US, Georgia
(1998)

Imports: $782 million (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products,
foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners: Russia, US, UK, Iran, Turkey, Belgium (1998)

Debt - external: $862.7 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $245.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma

Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 527.02 (January 2000), 535.06 (1999),
504.92 (1998), 490.85 (1997), 414.04 (1996), 405.91 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Armenia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 583,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
undergoing modernization and expansion
domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe
fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is
available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the
other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through
the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the
world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1998)

Televisions: 825,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Armenia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (825 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,998 km
paved: 15,998 km (including 7,567 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

@Armenia:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Aviation, Air
Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 896,646 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 708,940 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 33,391 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $75 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4% (FY99)

@Armenia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands
regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs - mostly opium and hashish - to Western Europe and the US via
Iran, Central Asia, and Russia

______________________________________________________________________



ARUBA

@Aruba:Introduction

Background: Formerly one of the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba became an
autonomous part of the Netherlands in 1986.

@Aruba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 193 sq km
land: 193 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
arable land: 7% aloe plantations included (0.01%)
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 93% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 0.01 sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues: NA

@Aruba:People

Population: 69,539 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 7,770; female 7,194)
15-64 years: 69% (male 22,944; female 24,810)
65 years and over: 9% (male 2,831; female 3,990) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.1 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.13 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.37 years
male: 75 years
female: 81.9 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Aruban(s)
adjective: Aruban

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 97%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Aruba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
Netherlands Antilles

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; in 1990,
Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN
(since 1 January 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July
1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a
six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister
elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 12 July
1997 (next to be held by December 2001)
election results: Jan (Henny) H. EMAN elected prime minister; percent
of legislative vote - NA; Dr. Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ elected deputy prime
minister; percent of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats;
members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held by NA December
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - AVP 43%, MEP 39%, OLA 9%
PPA 4%, ADN 2%, PARA 1%, MAS 0.5%; seats by party - AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA
2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by
the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo
BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA ; Aruban
Patriotic Party or PPA ; Aruban People's Party or AVP
; Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS ;
Democratic Action '86 or AD '86 ; Electoral Movement
Party or MEP ; Electoral People's Movement or MEP
; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA ;
National Democratic Action or ADN ; New Patriotic
Party or PPN

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS
embassy: J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao
mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone: (9) 461-3066
FAX: (9) 461-6489

Flag description: blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes
across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in
white in the upper hoist-side corner

@Aruba:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade
has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has
further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1%
unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job
vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1998)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,800 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 41,501 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most employment is in wholesale and
retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants (1997
est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $541 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 475 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 442 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fish

Exports: $1.17 billion (including oil reexports)(1998)

Exports - commodities: transport equipment, live animals and animal
products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment

Exports - partners: US 53.2%, Colombia 14.9%, Netherlands 8.8% (1998)

Imports: $1.52 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, crude oil
for refining and reexport; foodstuffs

Imports - partners: US 55.5%, Netherlands 12.3%, Japan 3.5% (1998)

Debt - external: $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands
provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Aruba:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 27,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,718 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: more than adequate
international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 20,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Aruba:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 800 km
paved: 513 km
unpaved: 287 km
note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
tracts of the interior (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Aruba:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

@Aruba:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: drug-money-laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________



ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5 sq km
land: 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
Cartier Island

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime
hazards

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in
August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are only seasonal caretakers (July 2000 est.)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and
Territories

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



ATLANTIC OCEAN

@Atlantic Ocean:Introduction

Background: A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic
Organization delimited a fifth world ocean from the southern portions
of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The new ocean
extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south
latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Atlantic
Ocean remains the second-largest of the world's five oceans (after the
Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and
Arctic Ocean).

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean,
and the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 76.762 million sq km
note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico,
Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the Scotia
Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre
(broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic,
counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south
centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and
the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject
to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to
May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September;
hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international
disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil,
and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico,
Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean
Sea

Geography - note: major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of
Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits
include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The
Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

@Atlantic Ocean:Economy

Economy - overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's
most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation
of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
(The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
(Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
(Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
(Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London
(UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada),
Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
(Norway), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil),
Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two
important waterways

@Atlantic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

______________________________________________________________________



AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Introduction

Background: Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in
1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to
rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to
make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and
II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of
the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas,
especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's
status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to an
independent republic, was defeated in 1999.

@Australia:Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 7,686,850 sq km
land: 7,617,930 sq km
water: 68,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 54%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing,
industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil
salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification;
clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of



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