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October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight
years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Montagne Pelee 1,397 m

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 17%
forests and woodland: 44%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity (an
average of one major natural disaster every five years)

Environment - current issues: NA

@Martinique:People

Population: 414,516 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 48,578; female 47,283)
15-64 years: 67% (male 137,724; female 139,241)
65 years and over: 10% (male 18,508; female 23,182) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.96% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.1 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.25 years
male: 79.03 years
female: 77.46 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Martiniquais (singular and plural)
adjective: Martiniquais

Ethnic groups: African and African-white-Indian mixture 90%, white 5%,
East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

Languages: French, Creole patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 92%
female: 93% (1982 est.)

@Martinique:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Martinique
conventional short form: Martinique
local long form: Departement de la Martinique
local short form: Martinique

Data code: MB

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May
1995); Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA)
head of government: President of the General Council Claude LISE
(since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council Alfred
MARIE-JEANNE (since NA March 1998)
cabinet: NA
elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year
term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the
French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and
Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (45
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
and a unicameral Regional Assembly or Conseil Regional (41 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council - last held NA March 1994 (next to be held
NA 2000); Regional Assembly - last held on 15 March 1998 (next to be
held by March 2004)
election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - NA; note - the PPM won a plurality; Regional Assembly
- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR-UDF 14, MIM 13,
PPM 7, left parties 4, PMS 3
note: Martinique elects 2 seats to the French Senate; elections last
held NA September 1998 (next to be held September 2001); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPM 2; Martinique also
elects 4 seats to the French National Assembly; elections last held 1
June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - RPR 2, PS 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Combat Worker ;
Martinique Communist Party or PCM ; Martinique Forces
; Martinique Independence Movement or MIM [Alfred
MARIE-JEANNE]; Martinique Patriots or PM ; Martinique
Progressive Party or PPM ; Martinique Socialist
Party or PMS ; Movement for a Liberated Martinique
; National Council of Popular Committees ;
Rally for Democratic Martinique ; Rally for the
Republic or RPR ; Republican Party or PR [Jean
BAILLY]; Socialist Federation of Martinique or FSM ;
Union for French Democracy or UDF ; Union for the Renewal
of Ste. Marie

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association for the Protection
of Martinique's Heritage (ecologist) ; Caribbean
Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union for Martinique Workers or
CSTM ; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and
Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP; Socialist Revolution Group
or GRS

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: a light blue background is divided into four
quadrants by a white cross; in the center of each rectangle is a white
snake; the flag of France is used for official occasions

@Martinique:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas,
tourism, and light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 6% of GDP
and the small industrial sector for 11%. Sugar production has
declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of
rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk
of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported,
contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual
transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than
agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of
the work force is employed in the service sector and in
administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.24 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 11%
services: 83% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1990)

Labor force: 170,000 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 17%, services
73% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 24% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $900 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $140
million (1996)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.075 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers,
vegetables, sugarcane

Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: refined petroleum products, bananas, rum,
pineapples

Exports - partners: France 45%, Guadeloupe 28% (1997)

Imports: $2 billion (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs,
construction materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods

Imports - partners: France 62%, Venezuela 6%, Germany 4%, Italy 4%, US
3% (1997)

Debt - external: $180 million (1994)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - substantial annual aid from
France

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Martinique:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 155,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: domestic facilities are adequate
domestic: NA
international: microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and
Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 14, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (plus nine repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 66,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Martinique:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,724 km (1994)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Fort-de-France, La Trinite

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Martinique:Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Martinique:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________



MAURITANIA

@Mauritania:Introduction

Background: Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the
southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in
1976, but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario
guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Opposition
parties were legalized and a new constitution approved in 1991. Two
multiparty presidential elections since then were widely seen as being
flawed; Mauritania remains, in reality, a one-party state. The country
continues to experience ethnic tensions between its black minority
population and the dominant Maur (Arab-Berber) populace.

@Mauritania:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Senegal and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 12 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,030,700 sq km
land: 1,030,400 sq km
water: 300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 5,074 km
border countries: Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km,
Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebkha de Ndrhamcha -3 m
highest point: Kediet Ijill 910 m

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 38%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 58% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 490 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows
primarily in March and April; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: overgrazing, deforestation, and soil
erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification;
very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal which
is the only perennial river

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: most of the population concentrated in the cities of
Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern
part of the country

@Mauritania:People

Population: 2,667,859 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 617,077; female 614,961)
15-64 years: 52% (male 677,238; female 697,524)
65 years and over: 2% (male 25,417; female 35,642) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.94% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 43.36 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.97 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.76 years
male: 48.7 years
female: 52.87 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.29 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mauritanian(s)
adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic groups: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof
(official), French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37.7%
male: 49.6%
female: 26.3% (1995 est.)

@Mauritania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form: Mauritania
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form: Muritaniyah

Data code: MR

Government type: republic

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular - region) and
1 capital district*; Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou,
Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh Ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri,
Nouakchott*, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution: 12 July 1991

Legal system: a combination of Shari'a (Islamic law) and French civil
law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA (since 12
December 1984)
head of government: Prime Minister Cheikel Afia Ould Mohamed KHOUNA
(since 16 November 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held NA December
2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA reelected
with 90.9% of the vote

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or
Majlis al-Shuyukh (56 seats; 17 up for election every two years;
members elected by municipal leaders to serve six-year terms) and the
National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani (79 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 17 April 1998 (next to be held NA 2001);
National Assembly - last held 11 and 18 October 1996 (next to be held
NA 2001)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - PRDS 71, AC 1, independents and other 7

Judicial branch: three-tier system: lower, appeals, and Supreme Court
(Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Action for Change or AC [Messoud Ould
BOULKHEIR]; Assembly for Democracy and Unity or RDU [Ahmed Ould SIDI
BABA]; Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS (ruling party)
; National Avant-Garde
Party or PAN ; Popular Social and Democratic
Union or UPSD ; Union of Democratic
Forces-New Era or UFD/NE
note: parties legalized by constitution passed 12 July 1991, however,
politics continue to be tribally based

Political pressure groups and leaders: General Confederation of
Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary
general]; Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM,
secretary general]; B'athists; Arab nationalists; Islamists

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate),
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member),
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Ben Khalifa BEN JIDDOU
chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 232-5700
FAX: (202) 319-2623

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Timberlake FOSTER
embassy: Rue Abdallahi Ould Oubeid, Nouakchott
mailing address: B. P. 222, Nouakchott
telephone: (2) 526-60, 526-63
FAX: (2) 515-92

Flag description: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a
yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down;
the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

@Mauritania:Economy

Economy - overview: A majority of the population still depends on
agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the
nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by
recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive
deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports.
The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks
in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest
fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners
threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater
port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and
economic mismanagement have resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In
March 1999, the government signed an agreement with a joint World
Bank-IMF mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment
facility (ESAF). The economic objectives have been set for 1999-2002.
Privatization remains one of the key issues. Mauritania is unlikely to
meet ESAF's annual GDP growth objectives of 4%-5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,910 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 31%
services: 44% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 57% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 30.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.8% (1998)

Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 47%, services 39%, industry
14%

Unemployment rate: 23% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $329 million
expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $75
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Industrial production growth rate: 7.2% (1994)

Electricity - production: 152 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 80.26%
hydro: 19.74%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 141 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; cattle,
sheep; fish products

Exports: $425 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, iron ore, gold

Exports - partners: Japan 24%, Italy 17%, France 14%, Spain 8% (1997)

Imports: $444 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products,
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners: France 26%, Spain 8%, Germany 7%, Benelux 7%
(1997)

Debt - external: $2.5 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $227.9 million (1995)

Currency: 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiyas (UM) per US$1 - 219.560 (December 1999),
209.514 (1999), 188.476 (1998), 151.853 (1997), 137.222 (1996),
129.768 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mauritania:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor
microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications
stations (improvements being made)
domestic: mostly cable and open-wire lines; a recently completed
domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with
regional capitals
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 2 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 360,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 62,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Mauritania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 704 km (single track); note - owned and operated by government
mining company
standard gauge: 704 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 7,660 km
paved: 866 km
unpaved: 6,794 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports and harbors: Bogue, Kaedi, Nouadhibou, Nouakchott, Rosso

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 26 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Mauritania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
National Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 605,124 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 293,445 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $41 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY97)

@Mauritania:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



MAURITIUS

@Mauritius:Introduction

Background: Discovered by the Portuguese in 1505, Mauritius was
subsequently held by the Dutch, French, and British before
independence was attained in 1968. A stable democracy with regular
free elections and a positive human rights record, the country has
attracted considerable foreign investment and has earned one of
Africa's highest per capita incomes. Recent protests over standards of
living in the Creole community have slowed economic growth.

@Mauritius:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 20 17 S, 57 33 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 1,860 sq km
land: 1,850 sq km
water: 10 sq km
note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint
Brandon), and Rodrigues

Area - comparative: almost 11 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter
(May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Piton 828 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land: 49%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 170 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones (November to April); almost completely
surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues: water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Mauritius:People

Population: 1,179,368 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 153,385; female 149,451)
15-64 years: 68% (male 401,032; female 403,295)
65 years and over: 6% (male 28,981; female 43,224) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.89% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.66 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.83 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female



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