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seats; Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 July 1997 (the next
legislative elections will coincide with the presidential election 2
July 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PRI 77, PAN 33, PRD 16, PVEM 1, PT 1; note - the distribution
of seats as of October 1999 is as follows - PRI 75, PAN 31, PRD 16, PT
1, independents 5; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
PRI 39%, PAN 27%, PRD 26%; seats by party - PRI 239, PRD 125, PAN 121,
PVEM 8, PT 7; note - the distribution of seats as of October 1999 is
as follows - PRI 237, PRD 125, PAN 120, PT 7, PVEM 6, independents 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de
Justicia, judges are appointed by the president with consent of the

Political parties and leaders: Convergence for Democracy or CD [Dante
DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Dulce
Maria SAURI Riancho]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge
GONZALEZ Torres]; National Action Party or PAN [Luis Felipe BRAVO
Mena]; Party of the Democratic Center or PCD ;
Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD ;
Party of the Mexican Revolution or PARM ; Party of the
Nationalist Society or PSN ; Social Alliance
Party or PAS ; Social Democratic Party
or PDS ; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Employers of
the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers
or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of
National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign
Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing
Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation
Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC;
National Union of Workers or UNT; Regional Confederation of Mexican
Workers or CROM; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants
or CROC; Revolutionary Workers Party or PRT; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, BCIE, BIS, Caricom
(observer), CCC, CDB, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesus REYES HEROLES Gonzalez Garza
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: (202) 728-1600
FAX: (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas,
Denver, El Paso, Houston, Laredo (Texas), Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Phoenix, Sacramento, San
Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Albuquerque, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California),
Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle
Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), McAllen (Texas), Midland (Texas),
Orlando, Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), St.
Louis, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, Santa Ana
(California), Seattle, Tucson

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffery DAVIDOW
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico,
Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087
telephone: (5) 209-9100
FAX: (5) 208-3373, 511-9980
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo, Nogales

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a
snake in its beak) is centered in the white band


Economy - overview: Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of
modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated
by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico
has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 1999. The
ZEDILLO administration is privatizing and expanding competition in sea
ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas
distribution, and airports. A strong export sector helped to cushion
the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996-99. Private
consumption became the leading driver of growth, accompanied by
increased employment and higher wages. Mexico still needs to overcome
many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and
raise living standards. Income distribution is very unequal, with the
top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income. Trade with the
US and Canada has nearly doubled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994.
Mexico is pursuing additional trade agreements with most countries in
Latin America and has signed a free trade deal with the EU to lessen
its dependence on the US. The government is pursuing conservative
economic policies in 2000 to avoid another end-of-term economic
crisis, but it still projects an economic growth rate of 4.5% because
of the strong US economy and high oil prices.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $865.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 29%
services: 66% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 27% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 38.6 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 24%, industry 21%, services
55% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 2.5% urban (1998); plus considerable

revenues: $117 billion
expenditures: $123 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel,
petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer
durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 176.055 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 78.12%
hydro: 13.82%
nuclear: 5%
other: 3.06% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 164.767 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 11 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 1.047 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton,
coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

Exports: $136.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999), includes in-bond industries
(assembly plant operations with links to US companies)

Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, oil and oil products,
silver, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners: US 89.3%, Canada 1.7%, Spain 0.6%, Japan 0.5%,
Venezuela 0.3%, Chile 0.3%, Brazil 0.3% (1999 est.)

Imports: $142.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999), includes in-bond industries
(assembly plant operations with links to US companies)

Imports - commodities: metal-working machines, steel mill products,
agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly,
repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts

Imports - partners: US 74.8%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.5%, Canada 1.9%,
South Korea 2%, Italy 1.3%, France 1% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $155.8 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.166 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 9.4793 (January 2000),
9.5604 (1999), 9.1360 (1998), 7.9185 (1997), 7.5994(1996), 6.4194

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 9.6 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.02 million (1998)

Telephone system: highly developed system with extensive microwave
radio relay links; privatized in December 1990; opened to competition
January 1997
domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but
the population is poorly served; domestic satellite system with 120
earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable
use of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, and mobile cellular service
international: satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad
(giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and
much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), numerous
Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave
System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic
submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands,
Morocco, Spain, and Italy (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 865, FM about 500, shortwave 13 (1999)

Radios: 31 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 236 (plus repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 25.6 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 167 (1999)


total: 31,048 km
standard gauge: 30,958 km 1.435-m gauge (246 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 90 km 0.914-m gauge (1998 est.)

total: 323,977 km
paved: 96,221 km (including 6,335 km of expressways)
unpaved: 227,756 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural
gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km

Ports and harbors: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada,
Guaymas, La Paz, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso,
Salina Cruz, Tampico, Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz

Merchant marine:
total: 46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 633,219 GRT/970,947 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquified gas 4,
petroleum tanker 29, roll-on/roll-off 3, short-sea passenger 3 (1999

Airports: 1,806 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 233
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 28
1,524 to 2,437 m: 87
914 to 1,523 m: 81
under 914 m: 27 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,573
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 63
914 to 1,523 m: 473
under 914 m: 1,035 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)


Military branches: National Defense Secretariat (includes Army and Air
Force), Navy Secretariat (includes Naval Air and Marines)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age
note: starting in 2000, females will be allowed to volunteer for
military service

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 26,171,141 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 19,022,012 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,073,809 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY99)

@Mexico:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy (cultivation in 1998
- 5,500 hectares; potential production - 60 metric tons) and cannabis
cultivation in 1998 - 4,600 hectares; government eradication efforts
have been key in keeping illicit crop levels low; major supplier of
heroin and marijuana to the US market; continues as the primary
transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America;
involved in the production and distribution of methamphetamines;
upsurge in drug-related violence and official corruption; major drug
syndicates growing more powerful





@Midway Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo

Geographic coordinates: 28 13 N, 177 22 W

Map references: Oceania

total: 6.2 sq km
land: 6.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Eastern Island, Sand Island, and Spit Island

Area - comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 13 m

Natural resources: wildlife, terrestrial and aquatic

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge
and open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of
wildlife observation and photography, sport fishing, snorkeling, and
scuba diving

@Midway Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants (July 2000 est.)

@Midway Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Midway Islands

Data code: MQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; formerly
administered from Washington, DC, by the US Navy, under Naval
Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division; this facility has
been operationally closed since 10 September 1993; on 31 October 1996,
through a presidential executive order, the jurisdiction and control
of the atoll was transferred to the Fish and Wildlife Service of the
US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Midway Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on providing support services
for the national wildlife refuge activities located on the islands.
All food and manufactured goods must be imported.

@Midway Islands:Transportation

total: 32 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports and harbors: Sand Island

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Midway Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Midway Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none




Background: Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the
Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from
the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan
territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic
majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians) who have
proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic.


Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total: 33,843 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
water: 472 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Nistru River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 53%
permanent crops: 14%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 13%
other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: landslides (57 cases in 1998)

Environment - current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals,
including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and
groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note: landlocked


Population: 4,430,654 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 523,373; female 505,064)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,422,470; female 1,544,169)
65 years and over: 10% (male 161,659; female 273,919) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.86 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.58 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.45 years
male: 59.92 years
female: 69.22 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%,
Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 est.)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about
1,000 members) (1991)

Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian
language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 99%
female: 94% (1989 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: none
former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Data code: MD

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: 10 juletule (singular - juletul) 1
municipality* 1 autonomous territorial unit**; Balti, Cahul, Chisinau,
Chisinau*, Dubasari, Edinet, Gagauzia**, Lapusna, Orhei, Soroca,
Tighina, Ungheni

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old
Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews
legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution;
it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but
accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE) documents

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Petru LUCINSCHI (since 15 January 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Dumitru BRAGHIS (since 21 December
1999), one first deputy prime minister and two deputy prime ministers
cabinet: selected by prime minister-designate, subject to approval of
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 17 November 1996; runoff election 1 December 1996
(next to be held NA November-December 2000); according to the Moldovan
constitution, the president, on consulting with the parliament, will
designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; within 15 days
from designation, the prime minister-designate will request a vote of
confidence from the parliament regarding his/her work program and
entire cabinet
election results: Petru LUCINSCHI elected president; percent of vote -
Petru LUCINSCHI 54%, Mircea SNEGUR 46%; Dumitru BRAGHIS was nominated
by the president 16 December 1999 and was elected prime minister by a
parliamentary vote of 57-4 (40 abstentions) on 21 December 1999

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats;
parties and electoral blocs, as well as independent candidates,
compete in popular elections to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 22 March 1998 (next to be held spring 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCM 30%, CDM 19%, PMDP
18%, PFD 9%; seats by party - PCM 40, CDM 26, PMDP 24, PFD 11
note: the comparative breakdown of seats by faction is approximate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court is the sole
authority of constitutional judicature

Political parties and leaders: Bloc for a Democratic and Prosperous
Moldova or PMDP ; Christian Democratic Popular Front
or FPCD ; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir
VORONIN, first chairman]; Democratic Convention of Moldova or CDM
; Party of Democratic Forces or PFD [Valeriu
MATEI, chairman]

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ceslav CIOBANU
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 667-1130
FAX: (202) 667-1204

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rudolf Villem PERINA
embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevicie, #103, Chisinau 2009
mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American
Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7080
telephone: (2) 23-37-72
FAX: (2) 23-30-44

Flag description: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical
bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag
is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and
talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in
its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its
breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized
ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow


Economy - overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good
farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy
depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine,
and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and
natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to
sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in
1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort, Moldova introduced a
stable convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing
preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land
privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. Yet
these efforts could not offset the impact of political and economic
difficulties, both internal and regional. In 1998, the economic
troubles of Russia, by far Moldova's leading trade partner, were a
major cause of the 8.6% drop in GDP; the value of the currency in
relation to the dollar fell by half. In 1999, GDP fell again, by 4.4%,
the fifth drop in the past six years; exports were down, and energy
supplies continued erratic. GDP is expected to remain at about the
same level in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -4.4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 35%
services: 34% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 75% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 25.8% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 38% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40.2%, industry 14.3%, other
45.5% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 2% (includes only officially registered unemployed;
large numbers of underemployed workers) (September 1998)

revenues: $536 million
expenditures: $594 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry
equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery,
sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 5.661 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 93%
hydro: 7%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 7.065 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 1.8 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets,

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