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sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk

Exports: $470 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, wine, and tobacco 66%; textiles and
footwear, machinery (1998)

Exports - partners: Russia 53%, Romania 10%, Ukraine 8%, Germany 5%,
Belarus 4% (1998)

Imports: $560 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel 31%, machinery and
equipment, chemicals, textiles (1998)

Imports - partners: Russia 22%, Ukraine 16%, Romania 12%, Belarus 9%,
Germany 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (December 1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $100.8 million (1995); note - $547 million
from the IMF and World Bank (1992-99)

Currency: Moldovan leu (MLD) (plural lei)

Exchange rates: lei (MLD) per US$1 (end of year) - 12.1408 (January
2000), 10.5158 (1999), 5.3707 (1998), 4.6236 (1997), 4.6045 (1996),
4.4958 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Moldova:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 566,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 14 (1995)

Telephone system: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau,
some effort to modernize is under way
domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular
telephone service being introduced
international: service through Romania and Russia via landline;
satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 3.22 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 40 (1998)

Televisions: 1.26 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Moldova:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,328 km
broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total: 12,300 km
paved: 10,738 km
unpaved: 1,562 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 26 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)

@Moldova:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic
Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,156,705 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 913,896 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 40,239 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY99)

@Moldova:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: separatist Transnistria region, comprising
the area between the Nistru (Dniester) River and Ukraine, has its own
de facto government, dominated by Moldovan Slavs

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from
Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe and possibly
the US

______________________________________________________________________



MONACO

@Monaco:Introduction

Background: Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century
with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since
then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling
facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation
center.

@Monaco:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the
southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 1.95 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: second smallest independent state in world (after
Holy See); almost entirely urban

@Monaco:People

Population: 31,693 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (male 2,449; female 2,336)
15-64 years: 62% (male 9,723; female 10,074)
65 years and over: 23% (male 2,907; female 4,204) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.48% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 9.94 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.06 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.84 years
male: 74.88 years
female: 83 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Monaco:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Data code: MN

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: none; there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La
Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419 (beginning of the rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent
Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre, son of the monarch (born 14
March 1958)
head of government: Minister of State Michel LEVEQUE (since 3 February
1997)
cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; minister of state
appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national
candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council or Conseil National
(18 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 1 and 8 February 1998 (next to be held NA January
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UND
18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme, judges named by
the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union or UND
International organization participation: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM,
IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Monaco does not have an embassy
in the US
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited
to Monaco

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of
Poland which is white (top) and red

@Monaco:Economy

Economy - overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean
coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and
pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to
diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting
industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and
thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established
residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and
offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors,
including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service.
Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous
French metropolitan areas. Monaco does not publish national income
figures; the estimates below are extremely rough.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $870 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $27,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 30,540 (January 1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1998)

Budget:
revenues: $518 million
expenditures: $531 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer
products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: none

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Monaco:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,027 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,560 (1994)

Telephone system: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into
the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM NA, shortwave 8 (1998)

Radios: 34,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1997)

Televisions: 25,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (1999)

@Monaco:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1.7 km
standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Monaco

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service

Heliports: 1 (shuttle service between the international airport at
Nice, France, and Monaco's heliport at Fontvieille)

@Monaco:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Monaco:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



MONGOLIA

@Mongolia:Introduction

Background: Long a province of China, Mongolia won its independence in
1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924.
During the early 1990s, the ex-communist Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In
1996, the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a
national election and has attempted to establish a number of reforms
to modernize the economy. However, many former communists retain key
posts and implementation has been difficult.

@Mongolia:Geography

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 1.565 million sq km
land: 1.565 million sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 8,114 km
border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature
ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and
southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten,
phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 80%
forests and woodland: 9%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization
and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative
effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants
and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely
polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the
converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased
soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities
have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
Russia

@Mongolia:People

Population: 2,650,952 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 461,719; female 447,426)
15-64 years: 62% (male 816,851; female 816,651)
65 years and over: 4% (male 46,682; female 61,623) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.53 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.25 years
male: 64.98 years
female: 69.64 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, other 6%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note: previously limited religious activity because of communist
regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.9%
male: 88.6%
female: 77.2% (1988 est.)

@Mongolia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

Data code: MG

Government type: republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and
3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor,
Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan,
Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay,
Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems
of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary and presidential
system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Rinchinnyamin AMARJARGAL (since 30
August 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation
with the president
elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and
elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 18
May 1997 (next to be held summer 2001); following legislative
elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is
usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last
held 30 August 1999 (next to be held NA)
election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI elected president; percent of
vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 60.8%, Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP
and MSDP) 29.8%, Jambyn GOMBOJAV 6.6%; Rinchinnyamin AMARJARGAL
elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 50 to 2

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - DUC 66%, MPRP 33%, MCP
1%; seats by party - DUC 50 (MNDP 34, MSDP 13, independents 3), MPRP
25, MCP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's
and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower
courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for
approval by the State Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Union Coalition or DUC
(includes the MNDP and the MSDP); Independence Party ;
Mongolian Conservative Party or MCP ; Mongolian
Democratic New Socialist Party or MDNSP ;
Mongolian Democratic Renaissance Party or MDRP [BYAMBASUREN,
chairman]; Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [R. AMARJARGAL,
chairman; B. DELGERMAA, general secretary]; Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party or MPRP [N. ENKHBAYAR, chairman; L. ENEBISH,
general secretary]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B.
JARGALSAIHAN]; Mongolian Social Democratic Party or MSDP
[Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ, chairman; N. ALTANKHUYAG, general
secretary]; Mongolian United Heritage Party or UHP
(includes the United Party of Herdsman and Farmers, Independence
Party, Traditional United Conservative Party, and Mongolian United
Private Property Owners Party); Mongolian United Private Property
Owners Party ); United Party of Herdsman and Farmers
; Traditional United Conservative Party ;
Workers' Party

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (202) 333-7117
FAX: (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alphonse F. LA PORTA
embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol,
Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big
Ring Road, C. P. O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP
96521-0002
telephone: (1) 329095
FAX: (1) 320776

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side),
blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the
national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and
geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the
yin-yang symbol)

@Mongolia:Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on
agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive
mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold
account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance,
at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in
1990-91, at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was
driven into deep recession, which was prolonged by the Mongolian
People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious
economic reform. The Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) government has
embraced free-market economics, easing price controls, liberalizing
domestic and international trade, and attempting to restructure the
banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization
programs have been undertaken, as well as fostering of foreign
investment through international tender of the oil distribution
company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform has been held
back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political
instability brought about through four successive governments under
the DUC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996
due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of
copper and cashmere. Public revenues and exports collapsed in 1998 and
1999 due to the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis. In August
and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban
on exports of oil and oil products. Mongolia joined the World Trade
Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged
over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting,
held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,320 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 24%
services: 43% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 24.5% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1998)

Labor force: 1.256 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1998)

Budget:
revenues: $260 million
expenditures: $366 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999)

Industries: construction materials, mining (particularly coal and
copper); food and beverages, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1998)

Electricity - production: 2.66 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.816 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 342 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep,
goats, cattle, camels, horses

Exports: $316.8 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere,
wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals

Exports - partners: China 30.1%, Switzerland 21.5%, Russia 12.1%,
South Korea 9.7%, US 8.1% (1998)

Imports: $472.4 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products,
industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea

Imports - partners: Russia 30.6%, China 13.3%, Japan 11.7%, South
Korea 7.5%, US 6.9% (1998)

Debt - external: $715 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $250 million (1998 est.)

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 1,070.39 (December 1999),
1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997), 548.40 (1996), 448.61
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mongolia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 93,800 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 2, shortwave 13 (1998)

Radios: 360,000 (1997)



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