United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 74 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 74 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 18 provincial repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 118,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA


total: 1,928 km
broad gauge: 1,928 km 1.524-m gauge (1994)

total: 49,250 km
paved: 1,674 km
unpaved: 47,576 km (1998 est.)
note: much of the unpaved rural road system consists of rough
cross-country tracks

Waterways: 400 km of principal routes (1999)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 34 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)


Military branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security
Forces and Border Guards), Air Force, Civil Defense troops

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 727,844 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 473,326 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 29,364 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY97)

@Mongolia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none




Background: Much of this island has been devastated and two-thirds of
the population has fled abroad due to the eruption of the Soufriere
Hills volcano that began on 18 July 1995.


Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

total: 100 sq km
land: 100 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chances Peak (in the Soufriere Hills) 914 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 40%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic
eruptions (full-scale eruptions of the Soufriere Hills volcano
occurred during 1996-97)

Environment - current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have
been cleared for cultivation


Population: 6,409
note: an estimated 8,000 refugees left the island following the
resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; some have returned (July
2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24.23% (male 778; female 775)
15-64 years: 64.25% (male 1,969; female 2,149)
65 years and over: 11.52% (male 395; female 343) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 20.53% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 17.48 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.49 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 195.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.96 years
male: 75.78 years
female: 80.23 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Montserratian(s)
adjective: Montserratian

Ethnic groups: black, white

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal,
Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations

Languages: English

definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1970 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montserrat

Data code: MH

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Plymouth (abandoned in 1997 due to volcanic activity; interim
government buildings have been built at Brades, in the Carr's
Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat)

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges,
Saint Peter's

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday of June)

Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989

Legal system: English common law and statutory law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Anthony John ABBOTT (since NA September 1997)
head of government: Chief Minister David BRANDT (since 22 August 1997)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief
minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party usually becomes chief minister; note - as a result of the last
election, a coalition party was formed between NPP, NDP, and one of
the independent candidates

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 7
popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held by NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPA
2, MNR 2, NPP 1, independent 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the High Court

Political parties and leaders: Movement for National Reconstruction or
MNR ; National Development Party or NDP
; National Progressive Party or NPP ;
People's Progressive Alliance or PPA

International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, ECLAC
(associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, WCL

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing
beside a yellow harp with her arm around a black cross


Economy - overview: Severe volcanic activity, which began in July
1995, put a damper on this small, open economy throughout 1996-99. A
catastrophic eruption in June 1997 closed the air and sea ports,
causing further economic and social dislocation. Two-thirds of the
12,000 inhabitants fled the island. Some began to return in 1998, but
lack of housing limited the number. The agriculture sector continued
to be affected by the lack of suitable land for farming and the
destruction of crops. Construction was the dominant activity in 1997
and 1998. GDP declined again in 1998. Prospects for the economy depend
largely on developments in relation to the volcano and on public
sector construction activity. The UK committed about $100 million in
1996-98 to help reconstruct the economy and has programmed additional
aid for 1999-2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $31 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -16% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.4%
industry: 13.6%
services: 81% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1998)

Labor force: 4,521 (1992); note - recently lowered by flight of people
from volcanic activity

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

revenues: $31.4 million
expenditures: $31.6 million, including capital expenditures of $8.4
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 9 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes,
onions, peppers; livestock products

Exports: $1.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel,
hot peppers, live plants, cattle

Exports - partners: US, Antigua and Barbuda (1993)

Imports: $26 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related

Imports - partners: US, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1993)

Debt - external: $8.9 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $9.8 million (1995); note - about $100
million (1996-98) in reconstruction aid from the UK; Country Policy
Plan (1999) is a three-year program for spending $122.8 million in
British budgetary assistance

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1992)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 70 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 7,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 3,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA


Railways: 0 km

total: 269 km
paved: 203 km
unpaved: 66 km (1995)

Ports and harbors: Plymouth (abandoned), Little Bay (anchorages and
ferry landing), Carr's Bay

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Montserrat:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none




Background: Morocco's long struggle for independence from France ended
in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier was turned over to the
new country that same year. Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara
during the late 1970s, but final resolution on the status of the
territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s
resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997.


Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

total: 446,550 sq km
land: 446,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,017.9 km
border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain
(Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas
of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish,

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 47%
forests and woodland: 20%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject
to earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil
erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing,
destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage;
siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar


Population: 30,122,350 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 5,372,393; female 5,175,114)
15-64 years: 60% (male 9,021,259; female 9,163,548)
65 years and over: 5% (male 632,698; female 757,338) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.74% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 24.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.02 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.13 years
male: 66.92 years
female: 71.44 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the
language of business, government, and diplomacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.7%
male: 56.6%
female: 31% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form: Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib

Data code: MO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*; Agadir, Al
Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*,
Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes,
Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga,
Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda,
Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate,
Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit
note: three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab),
Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall
within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara;
decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature in
March 1997 creating many new provinces/regions; specific details and
scope of the reorganization not yet available

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: Throne Day or Sete de Throne 30 July (1999)
(anniversary of King MOHAMED VI's accession to the throne)

Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to
create bicameral legislature) September 1996

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber
of Supreme Court

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 23 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abderrahmane YOUSSOUFI (since 14
March 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
by the monarch following legislative elections

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Chamber of Counselors (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local
councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for
nine-year terms; one-third of the members are renewed every three
years) and a lower house or Chamber of Representatives (325 seats;
members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held 5 December 1997 (next to
be held NA December 2000); Chamber of Representatives - last held 14
November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2002)
election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - RNI 42, MDS 33, UC 28, MP 27, PND 21, IP 21, USFP
16, MNP 15, UT 13, FFD 12, CDT 11, UTM 8, PPS 7, PSD 4, PDI 4, UGTM 3,
UNMT 2, other 3; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - USFP 57, UC 50, RNI 46, MP 40, MDS 32, IP 32,
MNP 19, PND 10, MPCD 9, PPS 9, FFD 9, PSD 5, OADP 4, PA 2, PDI 1
note: CDT, UTM, UGTM, UNMT are all labor unions listed under Political
pressure groups and leaders; see explanation in the description of

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed on the
recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over
by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: Action Party or PA ;
Constitutional Union or UC ; Democratic Forces
Front or FFD ; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Issa
al-OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Party for Independence or PDI [Thami
el-OUAZZANI, Said BOUACHRINE]; Istiqlal Party or IP ;
Labor Party or UT ; National Democratic Party or PND
; National Popular Movement or MNP
; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed
OSMAN]; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action or OADP [Mohamed
BENSAID]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Moulay Ismail al
ALAOUI]; Popular Constitutional and Democratic Movement or MPCD [Dr.
Abdelkarim al-KHATIB]; Popular Movement or MP ;
Social Democratic Movement or MDS ; Socialist Union
of Popular Forces or USFP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Popular Trade
Unions or ADP ; Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT
; Democratic National Trade Union or USND ;
Democratic Trade Union or SD ; General Union of Moroccan
Workers or UGTM ; Labor Union Commissions or CS
; Moroccan National Workers Union or UNMT ;
Moroccan Union of Workers or UTM ; Party of Shura
and Istiqla ;

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate),
member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (202) 462-7979 through 7982
FAX: (202) 265-0161
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward M. GABRIEL
embassy: 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
mailing address: PSC 74, Box 3, APO AE 09718
telephone: (7) 76 22 65
FAX: (7) 76 56 61
consulate(s) general: Casablanca

Flag description: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear
star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the
traditional color of Islam


Economy - overview: Morocco faces the problems typical of developing
countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on
private activity and foreign trade, and achieving sustainable economic
growth. Since the early 1980s the government has pursued an economic
program toward these objectives with the support of the IMF, the World
Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The dirham is now fully
convertible for current account transactions; reforms of the financial
sector have been implemented; and state enterprises are being
privatized. Drought conditions depressed activity in the key
agricultural sector, and contributed to an economic slowdown in 1999.
Favorable rainfalls have led Morocco to predict a growth of 6% for
2000. Formidable long-term challenges include: servicing the external
debt; preparing the economy for freer trade with the EU; and improving
education and attracting foreign investment to improve living
standards and job prospects for Morocco's youthful population.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $108 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16%
industry: 30%
services: 54% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 13.1% (1990-91 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.5% (1990-91)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 11 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 35%, industry
15% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 19% (1998 est.)

revenues: $9.1 billion
expenditures: $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7
billion (FY98/99 est.)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing,
leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 13.16 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 83.59%
hydro: 16.41%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 12.363 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 124 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables,
olives; livestock

Exports: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: phosphates and fertilizers, food and beverages,
minerals (1998)

Exports - partners: France 27%, Spain 11%, India 7%, Japan 6%, Italy
5% (1998)

Imports: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: semiprocessed goods, machinery and equipment,
food and beverages, consumer goods, fuel (1998)

Imports - partners: France 22%, Spain 10%, US 7%, Germany 6%, Italy 6%

Debt - external: $19.1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $565.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 10.051 (January
2000), 9.804 (1999), 9.604 (1998), 9.527 (1997), 8.716 (1996), 8.540

Fiscal year: July 1 - June 30


Telephones - main lines in use: 1.391 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 116,645 (1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and
microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive;
principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network
nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service
employs microwave radio relay
international: 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to
Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable
link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 6.64 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus 35 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 27 (1999)


total: 1,907 km
standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1,003 km electrified; 540 km
double track)

total: 57,847 km
paved: 30,254 km (including 327 km of expressways)
unpaved: 27,593 km (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products 491 km (abandoned);
natural gas 241 km

Ports and harbors: Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar,
Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also
Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine:
total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 218,987 GRT/263,191 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 1,
petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 9, roll-on/roll-off 8,
short-sea passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 70 (1999 est.)

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 74 of 140)