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Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium;
cattle, processed fish, karakul skins

Exports - partners: UK 43%, South Africa 26%, Spain 14%, France 8%,
Japan (1998 est.)

Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel,
machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports - partners: South Africa 84%, Germany, US, Japan (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $159 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $127 million (1998)

Currency: 1 Namibian dollar (N$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Namibian dollars (N$) per US$1 - 6.12439 (January
2000), 6.10948 (1999), 5.52828 (1998), 4.60796 (1997), 4.29935 (1996),
3.62709 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Namibia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 100,848 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 20,000 (1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio
relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by
open wire; 100% digital
international: fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio
relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries;
connected to Africa ONE and South African Far East (SAFE) submarine
cables through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 34, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 232,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (plus about 20 low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 60,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (1999)

@Namibia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,382 km
narrow gauge: 2,382 km 1.067-m gauge; single track (1995)

Highways:
total: 63,258 km
paved: 5,250 km
unpaved: 58,008 km (1997 est.)

Ports and harbors: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 135 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 113
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 69
under 914 m: 21 (1999 est.)

@Namibia:Military

Military branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 416,529 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 248,581 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $90 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY97/98)

@Namibia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Botswana over uninhabited
Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River resolved by the ICJ
in favor of Botswana (13 December 1999); at least one other island in
Linyanti River is contested

______________________________________________________________________



NAURU

@Nauru:Introduction

Background: Nauru's phosphate deposits began to be mined early in the
20th century by a German-British consortium; the island was occupied
by Australian forces in World War I. Upon achieving independence in
1968, Nauru became the smallest independent republic in the world; it
joined the UN in 1999.

@Nauru:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the
Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 21 sq km
land: 21 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources,
roof storage tanks collect rainwater, but mostly dependent on a
single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during
the past 90 years - mainly by a UK, Australia, and New Zealand
consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and
threatens limited remaining land resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock
islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in
Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

@Nauru:People

Population: 11,845 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.99% (male 2,494; female 2,361)
15-64 years: 57.37% (male 3,383; female 3,413)
65 years and over: 1.64% (male 97; female 97) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.05% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 27.86 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.34 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.84 years
male: 57.35 years
female: 64.5 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.71 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nauruan(s)
adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%,
European 8%

Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Languages: Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language),
English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and
commercial purposes

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Nauru:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Nauru
conventional short form: Nauru
former: Pleasant Island

Data code: NR

Government type: republic

Capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare,
Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, New Zealand-, and
UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Rene HARRIS (since NA 1999); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Rene HARRIS (since NA 1999); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term;
election last held 27 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: Rene HARRIS elected president; percent of Parliament
vote - NA
note: former President Bernard DOWIYOGO was deposed in a no-confidence
vote

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 8 February 1997 (next to be held NA February
2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: loose multiparty system; Democratic
Party ; Nauru Party (informal)

International organization participation: AsDB, C, ESCAP, ICAO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC,
SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Nauru does not have an embassy in
the US, but will open a UN office early in 2000 at 800 2nd Avenue, New
York, New York
consulate(s): Agana (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag description: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across
the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the
hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to
the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12
original tribes of Nauru

@Nauru:Economy

Economy - overview: Revenues of this tiny island come from exports of
phosphates, but reserves are expected to be exhausted in the year
2000. Phosphates have given Nauruans one of the highest per capita
incomes in the Third World, with estimates of GDP varying widely. Few
other resources exist, thus most necessities must be imported,
including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land
and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term
problems. Substantial amounts of phosphate income are invested in
trust funds to help cushion the transition. The government also has
been borrowing heavily from the trusts to finance fiscal deficits. To
cut costs the government has called for a freezing of wages, a
reduction of over-staffed public service departments, privatization of
numerous government agencies, and closure of some overseas consulates.
In recent years Nauru has encouraged the registration of offshore
banks and corporations. Tens of billions of dollars have been
channeled through their accounts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $100 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3.6% (1993)

Labor force - by occupation: employed in mining phosphates, public
administration, education, and transportation

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues: $23.4 million
expenditures: $64.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 28 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coconuts

Exports: $25.3 million (f.o.b., 1991)

Exports - commodities: phosphates

Exports - partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $21.1 million (c.i.f., 1991)

Imports - commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials,
machinery

Imports - partners: Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

Debt - external: $33.3 million

Economic aid - recipient: $2.25 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.5207 (January
2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996),
1.3486 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Nauru:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 450 (1994)

Telephone system: adequate local and international radiotelephone
communications provided via Australian facilities
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 7,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 500 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Nauru:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3.9 km; note - used to haul phosphates from the center of the
island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways:
total: 30 km
paved: 24 km
unpaved: 6 km (1998 est.)

Ports and harbors: Nauru

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Nauru:Military

Military branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru
Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,945 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,620 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal
agreement, Australia is responsible for defense of the island

@Nauru:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



NAVASSA ISLAND

@Navassa Island:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of
the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Geographic coordinates: 18 25 N, 75 02 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 5.2 sq km
land: 5.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating;
ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 m high)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on southwest side 77 m

Natural resources: guano

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 90%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to
support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

@Navassa Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the island (July
2000 est.)

@Navassa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Navassa Island

Data code: BQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service, US Department
of the Interior; in September 1996, the Coast Guard ceased operations
and maintenance of Navassa Island Light, a 46-meter-tall lighthouse
located on the southern side of the island; there has also been a
private claim advanced against the island

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Navassa Island:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Navassa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Navassa Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Navassa Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Haiti

______________________________________________________________________



NEPAL COUNTRY FLAG OF NEPAL

______________________________________________________________________



NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

@Netherlands Antilles:Introduction

Background: Once the center of the Caribbean slave trade, the island
of Curacao was hard hit by the abolition of slavery in 1863. Its
prosperity (and that of neighboring Aruba) was restored in the early
20th century with the construction of oil refineries to service the
newly discovered Venezuelan oil fields. The island of Sint Maarten is
shared with France (whose northern portion is named Saint Martin and
is part of Guadeloupe).

@Netherlands Antilles:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - one
includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela and the other is east
of the Virgin Islands

Geographic coordinates: 12 15 N, 68 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 960 sq km
land: 960 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint
Maarten (Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)

Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 10.2 km
border countries: Guadeloupe (Saint Martin) 10.2 km

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 90% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane
belt and are rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius
are subject to hurricanes from July to October

Environment - current issues: NA

@Netherlands Antilles:People

Population: 210,134 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 27,320; female 26,230)
15-64 years: 67% (male 66,653; female 73,813)
65 years and over: 8% (male 6,701; female 9,417) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.01% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.94 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.42 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.72 years
male: 72.56 years
female: 76.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Netherlands Antillean(s)
adjective: Netherlands Antillean

Ethnic groups: mixed black 85%, Carib Amerindian, white, East Asian

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a
Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect) predominates, English widely
spoken, Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (1981 est.)

@Netherlands Antilles:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Netherlands Antilles
local long form: none
local short form: Nederlandse Antillen

Data code: NT

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)
note: each island has its own government

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the
Netherlands, as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH
(since NA October 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 8 November
1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by
the monarch for a six-year term; following legislative elections, the
leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the
Staten; election last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA
2002)
election results: Miguel POURIER elected prime minister; percent of
legislative vote - NA
note: government coalition - PDB, DP-St. M, FOL, PLKP, PNP

Legislative branch: unicameral States or Staten (22 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAR
4, PNP 3, SPA 1, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, PLKP 3, WIPM 1, SEA 1, DP-St. M
2, FOL 2; no party won enough seats to form a government
note: the government of Prime Minister Miguel POURIER is a coalition
of several parties

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice, judges appointed by the
monarch

Political parties and leaders: Antillean Restructuring Party or PAR
; C 93 ; Democratic Party of Bonaire or
PDB ; Democratic Party of Curacao or DP [Ephraim
JONCKHEER]; Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius or DP-St. E [Julian
WOODLEY]; Democratic Party of Sint Maarten or DP-St. M [Sarah
WESTCOTT-WILLIAMS]; Foundation Energetic Management Anti-Narcotics or
FAME ; Labor Party People's Crusade or PLKP [Errol
COVA]; National People's Party or PNP ; New Antilles
Movement or MAN ; Nos Patria [Chin
BEHILIA]; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten or SPA ;
Patriotic Union of Bonaire or UPB ; People's Party or PAPU
; Pro Curacao Party or PPK ; Saba
Democratic Labor Movement ; Saba Unity Party [Carmen
SIMMONDS]; St. Eustatius Alliance or SEA ; Serious
Alternative People's Party or SAPP ; Social Action
Cause or KAS ; Socialist Independent or SI [George
HUECK]; Windward Islands People's Movement or WIPM ;
Workers' Liberation Front or FOL
note: political parties are indigenous to each island

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO, WToO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Barbara J. STEPHENSON
consulate(s) general: J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao
mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone: (9) 4613066
FAX: (9) 4616489

Flag description: white, with a horizontal blue stripe in the center
superimposed on a vertical red band, also centered; five white,
five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of
the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of
Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

@Netherlands Antilles:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, petroleum transshipment, and offshore
finance are the mainstays of this small economy, which is closely tied
to the outside world. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a
well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the
region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with
Venezuela, the US, and Mexico being the major suppliers. Poor soils
and inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,800 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 15%
services: 84% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (1998)

Labor force: 89,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 13%, services
86% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14.9% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $710.8 million
expenditures: $741.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: tourism (Curacao, Sint Maarten, and Bonaire), petroleum
refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and
Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.02 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 949 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: aloes, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, tropical
fruit

Exports: $303 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products 98% (1993)

Exports - partners: US 17.5%, Guatemala 8%, Costa Rica 6.5%, The
Bahamas 4.6%, Jamaica 4.1%, Chile 3.4% (1998)

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures (1993)



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