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Imports - partners: Venezuela 35.3%, US 21%, Mexico 9.8%, Italy 5.4%,
Netherlands 4.8%, Brazil 3.1% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.35 billion (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - Netherlands provided a $97
million aid package in 1996

Currency: 1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) =
100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins
(NAf.) per US$1 - 1.790 (fixed rate since 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Netherlands Antilles:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 75,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 11,727 (1995)

Telephone system: generally adequate facilities
domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 217,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (there is also a cable service which
supplies programs received from various US satellite networks and two
Venezuelan channels) (1997)

Televisions: 69,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999)

@Netherlands Antilles:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

total: 600 km
paved: 300 km
unpaved: 300 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Kralendijk, Philipsburg, Willemstad

Merchant marine:
total: 110 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,028,910 GRT/1,285,837
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 27, chemical tanker 2, combination
ore/oil 3, container 16, liquified gas 4, multi-functional large load
carrier 18, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 5, refrigerated cargo 26,
roll-on/roll-off 6 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
Belgium owns 9 ships, Germany 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 5 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Netherlands Antilles:Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal
Netherlands Air Force, National Guard, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 53,766 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 30,137 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,534 (2000 est.)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the

@Netherlands Antilles:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transshipment point for South
American drugs bound for the US and Europe




Background: The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830
Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands
remained neutral in World War I but suffered a brutal invasion and
occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized
nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural
products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EC, and
participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999.


Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and

Geographic coordinates: 52 30 N, 5 45 E

Map references: Europe

total: 41,532 sq km
land: 33,889 sq km
water: 7,643 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,027 km
border countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some
hills in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Prins Alexanderpolder -7 m
highest point: Vaalserberg 321 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 39% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,000 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: the extensive system of dikes and dams protects
nearly one-half of the total area from being flooded

Environment - current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy
metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and
phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: located at mouths of three major European rivers
(Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)


Population: 15,892,237 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 1,497,290; female 1,431,671)
15-64 years: 68% (male 5,490,518; female 5,305,848)
65 years and over: 14% (male 885,839; female 1,281,071) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.57% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.12 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.72 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.28 years
male: 75.4 years
female: 81.28 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)
adjective: Dutch

Ethnic groups: Dutch 91%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 9% (1999 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 34%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 3%, other 2%,
unaffiliated 36% (1991)

Languages: Dutch

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands
conventional short form: Netherlands
local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
local short form: Nederland

Data code: NL

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien, singular -
provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen,
Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland,

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April

Constitution: adopted 1814; amended many times, last time 17 February

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory;
constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States
General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), son of the
head of government: Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 22 August 1994) and
Vice Prime Ministers Annemarie JORRITSMA (since 3 August 1998) and Els
BORST-EILERS (since 3 August 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following Second Chamber
elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority
coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; vice
prime ministers appointed by the monarch
note: government coalition - PvdA, VVD, and D'66; there is also a
Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and
councilors consulted by the executive on legislative and
administrative policy

Legislative branch: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal
consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members
indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils for
four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats;
members directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: First Chamber - last held 25 May 1999 (next to be held NA
May 2003); Second Chamber - last held 6 May 1998 (next to be held May
election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - CDA 20, VVD 19, PvdA 15, D'66 4, other 17; Second Chamber -
percent of vote by party - PvdA 30.0%, VVD 25.3%, CDA 19.3%, D'66
9.3%, other 16.1%; seats by party - PvdA 45, VVD 38, CDA 29, D'66 14,
other 24

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoge Raad, justices are nominated
for life by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA
; Democrats '66 or D'66 ; Labor Party
or PvdA ; People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Liberal)
or VVD ; a host of minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federation of Netherlands Trade
Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a
Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant
Employers Associations; Interchurch Peace Council or IKV; large
multinational firms; the nondenominational Federation of Netherlands

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joris M. VOS
chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 244-5300
FAX: (202) 362-3430
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia P. SCHNEIDER
embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ, The Hague
mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715
telephone: (70) 310-9209
FAX: (70) 361-4688
consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue
and is longer


Economy - overview: The Netherlands is a prosperous and open economy
in which the government has successfully reduced its role since the
1980s. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing,
chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly
mechanized agricultural sector employs no more than 4% of the labor
force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry
and for exports. The Dutch rank third worldwide in value of
agricultural exports, behind the US and France. The Netherlands
successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job
growth long before its European partners. This has helped cushion the
economy from a slowdown in the euro area. Strong 3.8% GDP growth in
1998 was followed by an only slightly lower 3.4% expansion in 1999.
The outlook remains favorable, with real GDP growth in 2000 projected
at 3.25%, along with a small budget surplus. The Dutch were among the
first 11 EU countries establishing the euro currency zone on 1 January

GDP: purchasing power parity - $365.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 26.8%
services: 69.7% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 24.7% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 7 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 23%, agriculture
4% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.5% but generous welfare benefits have prompted
large numbers to drop out of the labor market (1999 est.)

revenues: $163 billion
expenditures: $170 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction,
microelectronics, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1999)

Electricity - production: 88.736 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 91.32%
hydro: 0.11%
nuclear: 4.08%
other: 4.49% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 94.325 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 400 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 12.2 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits,
vegetables; livestock

Exports: $169 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels;

Exports - partners: EU 78% (Germany 27%, Belgium-Luxembourg 13%,
France 11%, UK 10%, Italy 6%), Central and Eastern Europe, US (1998)

Imports: $152 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals,
fuels; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners: EU 61% (Germany 20%, Belgium-Luxembourg 11%, UK
10%, France 7%), US 9%, Central and Eastern Europe (1998)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $3.4 billion (1999)

Currency: 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents;
note - to be replaced by the euro on 1 January 2002

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1 - 1.8904
(January 1999), 1.9837 (1998), 1.9513 (1997), 1.6859 (1996), 1.6057
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 2.20371 guilders per euro; the euro will replace the
local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 8.431 million (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.016 million (1996)

Telephone system: highly developed and well maintained
domestic: the existing system of multi-conductor cables is gradually
being replaced by fiber-optic cables; the density of cellular
telephone traffic is rapidly increasing and further modernization of
the system is expected in the year 2001, with the introduction of the
third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (1996)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 58, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 15.3 million (1996)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (plus five low-power repeaters)

Televisions: 8.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 70 (1999)


total: 2,739 km
standard gauge: 2,739 km 1.435-m gauge; (1,991 km electrified) (1998)

total: 125,575 km
paved: 113,018 km (including 2,235 km of expressways)
unpaved: 12,557 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 5,046 km, of which 47% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric
ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas
10,230 km

Ports and harbors: Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven,
Groningen, Haarlem, Ijmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen,

Merchant marine:
total: 563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,035,899 GRT/4,576,841
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 343, chemical tanker 41, combination bulk
2, container 56, liquified gas 20, livestock carrier 1,
multi-functional large load carrier 8, passenger 8, petroleum tanker
25, refrigerated cargo 32, roll-on/roll-off 16, short-sea passenger 3,
specialized tanker 5 (1999 est.)
note: many Dutch-owned ships are also operating under the registry of
Netherlands Antilles (1998 est.)

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 6 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy
(includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air
Force, Royal Constabulary

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,090,273 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 3,566,882 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 96,684 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.956 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Netherlands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major European producer of illicit amphetamines and
other synthetic drugs; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and
hashish entering Europe



@New Caledonia:Introduction

Background: Settled by both Britain and France during the first half
of the 19th century, the island was made a French possession in 1853.
It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. Agitation for
independence during the 1980s and early 1990s seems to have

@New Caledonia:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 165 30 E

Map references: Oceania

total: 19,060 sq km
land: 18,575 sq km
water: 485 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver,
gold, lead, copper

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 12%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1991)

Natural hazards: cyclones, most frequent from November to March

Environment - current issues: erosion caused by mining exploitation
and forest fires

@New Caledonia:People

Population: 201,816 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 31,396; female 30,160)
15-64 years: 64% (male 65,042; female 63,961)
65 years and over: 5% (male 5,324; female 5,933) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.52% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.84 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.62 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.77 years
male: 69.84 years
female: 75.85 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.52 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: New Caledonian(s)
adjective: New Caledonian

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%,
Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

Languages: French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 92%
female: 90% (1976 est.)

@New Caledonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
conventional short form: New Caledonia
local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances
local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie

Data code: NC

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1956

Government type: NA

Capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and

Independence: none (overseas territory of France); note - a referendum
on independence was held in 1998 but did not pass

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to
the islands; formerly under French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Commissioner Thierry LATASTE (since 19 July
head of government: President of the Government Jean LEQUES (since 28
May 1999)
cabinet: Consultative Committee
elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year
term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the
advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government
elected by the members of the Territorial Congress

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Congress or Congres
Territorial (54 seats; members are members of the three Provincial
Assemblies or Assemblees Provinciales elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 May 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPCR
24, FLNKS 12, UNI 6, FCCI 4, FN 4, Alliance pour la Caledonie 3, LKS 1
note: New Caledonia elects 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last
held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA September 2001); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1; New Caledonia
also elects 2 seats to the French National Assembly; elections last
held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent
of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint
Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance pour la Caledonie [Didier
LEROUX]; Developper Ensemble pour Construire l'Avenir or DEPCA [Robert
FROUIN]; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes
or FCCI ; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest
UNE]; Groupe de l'Alliance Multiraciale or GAM ;
Independance et Progres ; Kanak Socialist Front
for National Liberation or FLNKS (includes PALIKA, UNI,
UC, UPM); La Caledonie Autrement ; Loyalty Islands
Development Front or FDIL ; National Front or FN [Guy
GEORGE]; Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA ;
Rally for Caledonia in the Republic or RPCR ;
Renouveau ; Socialist Kanak Liberation or LKS [Nidoish
NAISSELINE]; Union Caledonienne or UC ; Union Nationale
pour l'Independance or UNI ; Union Progressiste
Melanesienne or UPM

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ,

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@New Caledonia:Economy

Economy - overview: New Caledonia has more than 20% of the world's
known nickel resources. In recent years, the economy has suffered
because of depressed international demand for nickel, the principal
source of export earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is
suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 20% of imports.
In addition to nickel, the substantial financial support from France
and tourism are keys to the health of the economy. The situation in

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