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1998 was clouded by the spillover of financial problems in East Asia
and by lower prices for nickel. Nickel prices jumped in 1999, and
large additions were made to capacity.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 30%
services: 66% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 79,395 (including 15, 018 unemployed, 1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 7%, industry 23%, services
70% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $861.3 million
expenditures: $735.3 million, including capital expenditures of $52
million (1996 est.)

Industries: nickel mining and smelting

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.52 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 65.79%
hydro: 34.21%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.414 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vegetables; beef, deer, other livestock
products

Exports: $381 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: ferronickels, nickel ore, fish

Exports - partners: Japan 36%, France 30%, US 14%, Taiwan 9%,
Australia 7% (1997)

Imports: $922 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foods, machinery and equipment, fuels, minerals

Imports - partners: France 41%, Australia 13%, New Zealand 7%, Japan
5% (1998)

Debt - external: $79 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $770 million from France (1998)

Currency: 1 Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (CFPF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 117.67 (January 2000), 111.93 (1999), 107.25 (1998), 106.11 (1997),
93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@New Caledonia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 44,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 825 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 107,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 52,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@New Caledonia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 5,562 km
paved: 975 km
unpaved: 4,587 km (1993)

Ports and harbors: Mueo, Noumea, Thio

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,261 GRT/1,600 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 11 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 6 (1999 est.)

@New Caledonia:Military

Military branches: French Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force,
Gendarmerie); Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $192.3 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.3% (1996)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@New Caledonia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Matthew and Hunter Islands claimed by France
and Vanuatu

______________________________________________________________________



NEW ZEALAND

@New Zealand:Introduction

Background: The British colony of New Zealand became an independent
dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars.
New Zealand withdrew from a number of defense alliances during the
1970s and 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address
longstanding native Maori grievances.

@New Zealand:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 268,680 sq km
land: 268,670 sq km
water: 10 sq km
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands,
Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Area - comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 50%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,850 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe;
volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native
flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography - note: about 80% of the population lives in cities

@New Zealand:People

Population: 3,819,762 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 440,824; female 419,740)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,263,710; female 1,254,958)
65 years and over: 11% (male 191,511; female 249,019) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 14.28 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.57 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.82 years
male: 74.85 years
female: 80.93 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups: New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European
4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%

Religions: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%,
Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33%
(1986)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@New Zealand:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand
abbreviation: NZ

Data code: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town
districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller,
Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont,
Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay,
Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt,
Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough,
Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua,
Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako,
Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga,
Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford,
Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga,
Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo,
Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea,
Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa,
Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland,
Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions
(Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay,
Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman,
Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are
subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*,
Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central
Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne,
Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*,
Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie,
Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*,
Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston
North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney,
Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato,
South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames
Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa,
Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western
Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand
Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1
January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and
land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Michael HARDIE BOYS (since 21
March 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December
1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Jim ANDERTON (since 10 December 1999)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year
term; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly
called Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in
single-member constituencies to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 27 November 1999 (next must be called by November
2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NZLP
49, NP 39, Alliance 10, ACT New Zealand 9, Green Party 7, NZFP 5, UNZ
1
note: NZLP and Alliance formed the government coalition; the National
Party became the opposition party

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: ACT, New Zealand ;
Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party, Democratic Party, New
Zealand Liberal Party, and Mana Motuhake) ; Christian
Coalition (a coalition of the Christian Democrats and Christian
Heritage Party) ; Conservative Party (formerly
Right of Centre Party) ; Democratic Party [John
WRIGHT]; Green Party ; Mana
Motuhake ; Mauri Pacific Party (composed of members who
broke away from the NZFP) ; National Party or NP [Jenny
SHIPLEY]; New Labor Party ; New Zealand First Party or
NZFP ; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP ;
New Zealand Liberal Party ; United New Zealand or UNZ
International organization participation: ABEDA, ANZUS (US suspended
security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia
Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW,
PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK,
UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James Brendan BOLGER
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 328-4800
FAX: (202) 667-5227
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Carol MOSELEY-BRAUN
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP
96531-1001
telephone: (4) 472-2068
FAX: (4) 471-2380
consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in
the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross
constellation

@New Zealand:Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1984 the government has accomplished major
economic restructuring, moving an agrarian economy dependent on
concessionary British market access toward a more industrialized, free
market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has
boosted real incomes, broadened and deepened the technological
capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary
pressures. Inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world.
Per capita GDP has been moving up toward the levels of the big West
European economies. New Zealand's heavy dependence on trade leaves its
growth prospects vulnerable to economic performance in Asia, Europe,
and the US. Moderate growth probably will characterize 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $63.8 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 23%
services: 69% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.86 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: services 65%, industry 25%, agriculture
10% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $24.9 billion
expenditures: $23.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY97/98 est.)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles,
machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism,
mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 35.789 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 27.17%
hydro: 65.82%
nuclear: 0%
other: 7.01% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 33.284 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits,
vegetables; wool, beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $12.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: dairy products, meat, fish, wool, forestry
products, manufactures

Exports - partners: Australia 21%, Japan 13%, US 13%, UK 6% (1998)

Imports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft,
petroleum, consumer goods, plastics

Imports - partners: Australia 22%, US 20%, Japan 11%, UK 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $53 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $123 million (1995)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9451 (January
2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996),
1.5235 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@New Zealand:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.719 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 588,000 (1998)

Telephone system: excellent international and domestic systems
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth
stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 3.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and
over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.926 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 56 (1999)

@New Zealand:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,913 km
narrow gauge: 3,913 km 1.067-m gauge (519 km electrified) (1999)

Highways:
total: 92,200 km
paved: 53,568 km (including at least 144 km of expressways)
unpaved: 38,632 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied
petroleum gas or LPG 150 km

Ports and harbors: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga,
Wellington

Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 102,461 GRT/133,418 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 1, petroleum tanker 2, rail car carrier
1, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 111 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 67
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 43 (1999 est.)

@New Zealand:Military

Military branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New
Zealand Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 990,774 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 834,289 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 26,649 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $883 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY97/98)

@New Zealand:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross
Dependency)

______________________________________________________________________



NICARAGUA

@Nicaragua:Introduction

Background: Settled as a colony of Spain in the 1520s, Nicaragua
gained its independence in 1821. Violent opposition to governmental
manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted
in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista
guerrillas to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El
Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas
through much of the 1980s. Free elections in 1990 and again in 1996
saw the Sandinistas defeated. The country has slowly rebuilt its
economy during the 1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998.

@Nicaragua:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 85 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 129,494 sq km
land: 120,254 sq km
water: 9,240 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the state of New York

Land boundaries:
total: 1,231 km
border countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 25-nm security zone
continental shelf: natural prolongation
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 880 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and
occasionally severe hurricanes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution; Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Nicaragua:People

Population: 4,812,569 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 971,580; female 936,888)
15-64 years: 57% (male 1,372,169; female 1,392,861)
65 years and over: 3% (male 60,539; female 78,532) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.2% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 28.26 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.74 years
male: 66.81 years
female: 70.77 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.27 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%,
black 9%, Amerindian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant

Languages: Spanish (official)
note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 65.7%
male: 64.6%
female: 66.6% (1995 est.)

@Nicaragua:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua
conventional short form: Nicaragua
local long form: Republica de Nicaragua
local short form: Nicaragua

Data code: NU

Government type: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento), 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular
- region autonomista); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli,
Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva
Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987, with reforms in 1995 and 2000

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997);
Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997); note - the
president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997);
Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997); note - the
president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20 October 1996
(next to be held NA October 2001); note - in July 1995 the term of the
office of the president was amended to five years
election results: Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (Liberal Alliance - ruling
party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 51.03%, Daniel ORTEGA
Saavedra (FSLN) 37.75%, Guillermo OSORNO (PCCN) 4.10%, Noel VIDAURRE
(PCN) 2.26%, Benjamin LANZAS (PRONAL) 0.53%, other (18 other
candidates) 4.33%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional
(93 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Alliance (ruling
party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 46.03%, FSLN 36.55%, PCCN
3.73%, PCN 2.12%, MRS 1.33%; seats by party - Liberal Alliance 42,
FSLN 36, PCCN 4, PCN 3, PRONAL 2, MRS 1, PRN 1, PNC 1, PLI 1, AU 1,
UNO-96 Alliance 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, 16 judges elected for



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