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plains in south; hills in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Mont Greboun 1,944 m

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold,
petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 2%
other: 88% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion;
deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as
elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of
poaching and habitat destruction

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the
Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Niger:People

Population: 10,075,511 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,461,391; female 2,373,617)
15-64 years: 50% (male 2,445,369; female 2,563,839)
65 years and over: 2% (male 121,570; female 109,725) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.75% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 51.45 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 23.17 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 124.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.27 years
male: 41.43 years
female: 41.11 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.16 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri
(Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French
expatriates

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 13.6%
male: 20.9%
female: 6.6% (1995 est.)

@Niger:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger

Data code: NG

Government type: republic

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular -
departement), and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez,
Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national
referendum on 12 May 1996 and again by referendum on 18 July 1999

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999);
note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999);
note - the president is both chief of state and head of government;
Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by
the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the
president
note: President Ibrahim BARE was assassinated on 9 April 1999;
subsequent elections held under the nine-month provisional government
of Major Daouda Mallam WANKE
cabinet: 24-member cabinet appointed by President TANDJA
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Mamadou TANDJA elected president; percent of vote -
Mamadou TANDJA 60%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 40%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (83 seats, members
elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
MNSD-Nassara 38, CDS-Rahama 17, PNDS-Tarayya 16, RDP-Jama'a 8,
ANDPS-Zaman Lahia 4

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour
d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a
or RDP-Jama'a ; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama
or CDS-Rahama ; Movement for Development and
Progress-Alkwali or MDP-Alkwali ; National
Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Tandja
MAMADOU, chairman]; National Union of Independents for Democratic
Renewal or UNIRD ; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and
Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou
DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Democratic Front-Mutunci or FDN-Mutunci [Ide
OUMAROU]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or
PNDS-Tarayya ; Nigerien Social Democrat
Party-Alheri or PSDN-Alheri ; Party for People's
Dignity-Daraja or PDP-Daraja ; Union of
Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua
; Union for Democracy and Social
Progress-Amana or UDPS-Amana ; Union of Popular
Forces for Democracy and Progress-Sawaba or UFPDP-Sawaba [Djibo
BAKARY]; Workers' Movement Party-Albarka or PMT-Albarka [Omar Idi
ANGO]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB,
WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 483-4224 through 4227

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Barbro OWENS-KIRKPATRICK
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone: 72 26 61 through 72 26 64
FAX: 73 31 67

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white,
and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in
the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked
wheel centered in the white band

@Niger:Economy

Economy - overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation,
whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry,
reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its major export
since the 1970s. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in
January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the
products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on
bilateral and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the
April 1999 coup d'etat - for operating expenses and public investment.
Short-term prospects depend on upcoming negotiations with the World
Bank and the IMF on debt relief and extended aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 18%
services: 42% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 29.3% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1999)

Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce
6%, government 4%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $377 million, including $146 million from foreign sources
expenditures: $377 million, including capital expenditures of $105
million (1999 est.)

Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing,
chemicals, slaughterhouses

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 180 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 363 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 196 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum,
cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys,
horses, poultry

Exports: $269 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: uranium ore 65%, livestock products, cowpeas,
onions (1998 est.)

Exports - partners: US, Greece, Japan, France, Nigeria, Benin

Imports: $295 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery,
vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals

Imports - partners: France, Cote d'Ivoire, US, Benelux, Nigeria

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $222 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 670 (January 2000), 560.01 (January 1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67
(1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Niger:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 13,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: small system of wire, radiotelephone communications,
and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area
domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio
relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 5, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 680,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 10 (plus seven low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 125,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Niger:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 10,100 km
paved: 798 km
unpaved: 9,302 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Niger is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the
Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 27 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Niger:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Republican
Guard, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,137,181 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,155,054 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 105,884 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY96)

@Niger:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern
Niger; delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of
Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has
been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and

______________________________________________________________________



NIUE

@Niue:Introduction

Background: Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic
differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest
of the Cook Islands, have caused it to be separately administered. The
population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in
1966 to 2,100 in 2000) with substantial emigration to New Zealand.

@Niue:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Geographic coordinates: 19 02 S, 169 52 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 50% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment - current issues: increasing attention to conservationist
practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and
burn agriculture

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: one of world's largest coral islands

@Niue:People

Population: 2,113 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.47% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and
Tongans)

Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely
related to the London Missionary Society) 75%, Latter-Day Saints 10%,
other 15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day
Adventist)

Languages: Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 95%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Niue:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue

Data code: NE

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
Zealand; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand
retains responsibility for external affairs

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none; note - there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 14 villages each with its own village council whose members are
elected and serve three-year terms

Independence: on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing
parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and
New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner Warren
SEARELL (since NA August 1993)
head of government: Premier Sani LAKATANI (since 1 April 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers
elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the
Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 19
March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2002)
election results: Sani LAKATANI elected premier; percent of
Legislative Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a
common roll and 14 are village representatives)
elections: last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP
9, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue

Political parties and leaders: Niue People's Action Party or NPP
International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing territory in
free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing territory
in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed
stars - a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on
each arm of the bold red cross

@Niue:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid and
remittances from New Zealand. Government expenditures regularly exceed
revenues, and the shortfall is made up by grants from New Zealand
which are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut
government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half.
The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening,
although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists
primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil,
honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign
collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent
years has suffered a serious loss of population because of migration
of Niueans to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the
promotion of tourism and a financial services industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 million (1994 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,250 (1994 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1995)

Labor force: 450 (1992 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most work on family plantations; paid
work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue
Development Board

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, handicrafts, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 3 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 3 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro,
yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Exports: $117,500 (f.o.b., 1989)

Exports - commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion
fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps,
handicrafts

Exports - partners: NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports: $4.1 million (c.i.f., 1989)

Imports - commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods,
machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs

Imports - partners: NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Samoa, Australia, US

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $8.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9451 (January
2000), 1.8889 (1999), 1.8629 (1998), 1.5082 (1997), 1.4543 (1996),
1.5235 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Niue:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 376 (1991)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1991)

Telephone system:
domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Niue:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 234 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved: 234 km

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Niue:Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

@Niue:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



NORFOLK ISLAND

@Norfolk Island:Introduction

Background: Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal
colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the
island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty
mutineers and their Tahitian companions.

@Norfolk Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 29 02 S, 167 57 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 34.6 sq km
land: 34.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Bates 319 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 75% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially May to July)

Environment - current issues: NA

@Norfolk Island:People

Population: 1,892 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -0.68% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New
Zealander, Polynesians

Religions: Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in
Australia 16.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%,
other 2.4% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century
English and ancient Tahitian

@Norfolk Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form: Norfolk Island

Data code: NF

Dependency status: territory of Australia; Canberra administers
Commonwealth responsibilities on Norfolk Island through the Department
of Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1979

Legal system: based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and
acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either
Australian or Norfolk Island law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and
Australia are represented by Administrator A. J. MESSNER (since 4
August 1997)
head of government: Assembly President and Chief Minister George
Charles SMITH (since 30 April 1997)
cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of
the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and
acts as an advisor to the Administrator
elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the
governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the
Legislative Assembly for a term of not more than three years; election
last held 30 April 1997 (next to be held by May 2000)
election results: George Charles SMITH elected chief minister; percent
of Legislative Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members
elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes
can be given to any one candidate; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 30 April 1997 (next to be held by May 2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions

Political parties and leaders: none



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