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International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white,
and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the
slightly wider white band

@Norfolk Island:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the primary economic activity, has
steadily increased over the years and has brought a level of
prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific islands. The
agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of
beef, poultry, and eggs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,395 (1991 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: tourism NA%, subsistence agriculture NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.6 million
expenditures: $4.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY92/93)

Industries: tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed,
cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry

Exports: $1.5 million (f.o.b., FY91/92)

Exports - commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island
pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados

Exports - partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ,
Asia, Europe

Imports: $17.9 million (c.i.f., FY91/92)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ,
Asia, Europe

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.5207 (January
2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996),
1.3486 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Norfolk Island:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1,087 (1983)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1983)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone service with Sydney (Australia)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2,500 (1996)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (local programming station plus two
repeaters that bring in Australian programs by satellite) (1998)

Televisions: 1,200 (1996)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Norfolk Island:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 80 km
paved: 53 km
unpaved: 27 km

Ports and harbors: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Norfolk Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Norfolk Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS

@Northern Mariana Islands:Introduction

Background: Under US administration as part of the UN Trust Territory
of the Pacific, the people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in
the 1970s not to seek independence but instead to forge closer links
with the US. Negotiations for territorial status began in 1972. A
covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the US
was approved in 1975. A new government and constitution went into
effect in 1978.

@Northern Mariana Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 15 12 N, 145 45 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 477 sq km
land: 477 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,482 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little
seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy
season July to October

Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and
fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Agrihan 965 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 19%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 60%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons
(especially August to November)

Environment - current issues: contamination of groundwater on Saipan
may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of
endangered species conflicts with development

Geography - note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

@Northern Mariana Islands:People

Population: 71,912 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 8,652; female 8,377)
15-64 years: 75% (male 25,441; female 28,233)
65 years and over: 1% (male 591; female 618) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.75% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.86 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 2.41 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 19.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.54 years
male: 72.45 years
female: 78.82 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians,
Caucasian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean

Religions: Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional
beliefs and taboos may still be found)

Languages: English, Chamorro, Carolinian
note: 86% of population speaks a language other than English at home

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 96% (1980 est.)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
conventional short form: Northern Mariana Islands

Data code: CQ

Dependency status: commonwealth in political union with the US;
federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of
the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs

Government type: commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected
governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature

Capital: Saipan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth in political union with
the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined
by the US Government, but there are four municipalities at the second
order; Northern Islands, Rota, Saipan, Tinian

Independence: none (commonwealth in political union with the US)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 4 November 1986 and the
Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
effective 1 January 1978

Legal system: based on US system, except for customs, wages,
immigration laws, and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Pedro P. TENORIO (since NA January 1998)
and Lieutenant Governor Jesus R. SABLAN (since NA January 1998)
cabinet: NA
elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket
for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the
same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held in
NA November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2001)
election results: Pedro P. TENORIO elected governor in a three-way
race; percent of vote - Pedro P. TENORIO (Republican Party) 47%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature consists of the Senate (9
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
staggered terms) and the House of Representatives (18 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA November 1997 (next to be held NA
November 1999); House of Representatives - last held NA November 1997
(next to be held NA November 1999)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Republican Party 8, Democratic Party 1; House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Republican Party 13, Democratic Party 5
note: the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in the US
Congress; instead, it has an elected official or "resident
representative" located in Washington, DC; seats by party - Republican
Party 1 (Juan N. BABAUTA)

Judicial branch: Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal
District Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [chairman (currently
vacant)]; Republican Party

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), SPC

Flag description: blue, with a white, five-pointed star superimposed
on the gray silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation
stone used in building) in the center, surrounded by a wreath

@Northern Mariana Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial
assistance from the US. The rate of funding has declined as locally
generated government revenues have grown. An agreement for the years
1986 to 1992 entitled the islands to $228 million for capital
development, government operations, and special programs. Since 1992,
funding has been extended one year at a time. The commonwealth
received $27.7 million from FY93/94 through FY95/96. For FY96/97
through FY02/03, funding of $11 million will be provided for
infrastructure, with an equal local match. A rapidly growing chief
source of income is the tourist industry, which now employs about 50%
of the work force. Japanese tourists predominate. The agricultural
sector is of minor importance and is made up of cattle ranches and
small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons.
Garment production is the fastest growing industry with employment of
12,000 mostly Chinese workers and shipments of $1 billion to the US in
1998 under duty and quota exemptions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $524 million (1996 est.)
note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 6,006 total indigenous labor force; 2,699 unemployed;
28,717 foreign workers (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: managerial 20.5%, technical, sales 16.4%,
services 19.3%, farming 3.1%, precision production 13.8%, operators,
fabricators 26.9%

Unemployment rate: 14% (residents)

Budget:
revenues: $221 million
expenditures: $213 million, including capital expenditures of $17.7
million (1996)

Industries: tourism, construction, garments, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, fruits, vegetables; cattle

Exports: $1 billion (1998)

Exports - commodities: garments

Exports - partners: US

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: food, construction equipment and materials,
petroleum products

Imports - partners: US, Japan

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $21.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Northern Mariana Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 15,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,200 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (on Saipan and one station planned
for Rota; in addition, two cable services on Saipan provide varied
programming from satellite networks) (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Northern Mariana Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 362 km (1991 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Saipan, Tinian

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Northern Mariana Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



NORWAY

@Norway:Introduction

Background: Despite its neutrality, Norway was not able to avoid
occupation by Germany in World War II. In 1949, neutrality was
abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas
in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic
fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive
welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are
depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining
the EU.

@Norway:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 324,220 sq km
land: 307,860 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,515 km
border countries: Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413
km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093
km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current;
colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken
by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented
by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggeh 2,469 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel,
iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging
forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air
pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off
its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes
and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest
coastlines in world; Norway is the only NATO member having a land
boundary with Russia

@Norway:People

Population: 4,481,162 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 459,608; female 434,809)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,472,974; female 1,430,526)
65 years and over: 15% (male 283,741; female 399,504) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.79 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.89 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.65 years
male: 75.73 years
female: 81.77 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups: Norwegian (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 86% (state church), other Protestant
and Roman Catholic 3%, other 1%, none and unknown 10% (1997)

Languages: Norwegian (official)
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Norway:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge

Data code: NO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke);
Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og
Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland,
Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence: 7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden
dissolved; 26 October 1905 Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common
law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature
when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 March
2000)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of
the Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary
elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority
coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the
approval of the Parliament

Legislative branch: modified unicameral Parliament or Storting which,
for certain purposes, divides itself into two chambers (165 seats;
members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 1997 (next to be held NA September
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 35%, Center
Party 7.9%, Conservative Party 14.3%, Christian People's Party 13.7%,
Socialist Left Party 6%, Progress Party 15.3%, Liberal Party 4.4%,
other parties 1.6%; seats by party - Labor Party 65, Center Party 11,
Conservative Party 23, Christian People's Party 25, Socialist Left
Party 9, Progress Party 25, Liberal Party 6, other parties 1
note: for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two
chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or
Lagting

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett, justices appointed by
the monarch

Political parties and leaders: Center Party ;
Christian People's Party ; Conservative Party [Jan
PETERSEN]; Labor Party ; Liberal Party [Lars
SPONHEIM]; Norwegian Communist Party ; Progress
Party ; Red Electoral Alliance ;
Socialist Left Party

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU
(associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tom Erik VRAALSEN
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 333-6000
FAX: (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David B. HERMELIN
embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: (22) 44 85 50
FAX: (22) 43 07 77

Flag description: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Norway:Economy

Economy - overview: The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of
welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity
and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such
as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises),
and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and areas with sparse
resources. The extensive welfare system helps propel public sector
expenditures to more than 50% of GDP. A major shipping nation, with a
high dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an
exporter of raw materials and semiprocessed goods. The country is
richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish,
forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production
and international oil prices. Only Saudi Arabia exports more oil than
Norway. Norway imports more than half its food needs. Oslo opted to
stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. Growth was a
meager 0.8% in 1999 because of weak private consumption and anemic
investment activity in the oil and other sectors. Growth should pick
up in 2000, perhaps to 2.7%. Despite their high per capita income and
generous welfare benefits, Norwegians worry about that time in the
next two decades when the oil and gas begin to run out.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $111.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 26.3%
services: 71.5% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.2% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.7 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 74%, industry 22%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 4% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $69.7 billion
expenditures: $60.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and
paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1999 est.)



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