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Electricity - production: 115.485 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 0.58%
hydro: 99.16%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.26% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 111.001 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 4.4 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 8 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: barley, other grains, potatoes; beef, milk;
fish

Exports: $47.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and
equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish

Exports - partners: EU 77% (UK 17%, Germany 12%, Netherlands 10%,
Sweden 10%, France 8%), US 7% (1998)

Imports: $38.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals,
foodstuffs

Imports - partners: EU 69% (Sweden 15%, Germany 14%, UK 10%, Denmark
7%), US 7%, Japan 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $0 (Norway is a net external creditor)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 8.0129 (January
2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996),
6.3352 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Norway:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,325,010 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,676,763 (1997)

Telephone system: high-quality domestic and international telephone,
telegraph, and telex services
domestic: domestic satellite system
international: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine
cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note -
Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic
countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 4.03 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 209 (1997)

Televisions: 2.03 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 21 (1999)

@Norway:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,012 km
standard gauge: 4,012 km 1.435-m gauge (2,530 km electrified; 96 km
double track) (1998)

Highways:
total: 90,741 km
paved: 67,602 km (including 128 km of expressways)
unpaved: 23,139 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; navigable by 2.4 m draft vessels
maximum

Pipelines: refined petroleum products 53 km

Ports and harbors: Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad,
Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger,
Tromso, Trondheim

Merchant marine:
total: 788 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,460,260
GRT/34,178,125 DWT
ships by type: bulk 100, cargo 142, chemical tanker 111, combination
bulk 9, combination ore/oil 35, container 18, liquified gas 86,
multi-functional large load carrier 1, passenger 11, petroleum tanker
157, refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off 48, short-sea passenger
22, vehicle carrier 37 (1999 est.)
note: the government has created an internal register, the Norwegian
International Ship register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian
register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience
and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians (1998 est.)

Airports: 103 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 67
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 29 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 31 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Norway:Military

Military branches: Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (includes
Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home
Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,103,256 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 915,949 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 27,417 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.113 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY98)

@Norway:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud
Land)

______________________________________________________________________



OMAN

@Oman:Introduction

Background: In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al Said ousted his father and has
ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has
opened the country to the outside world and has preserved a
long-standing political and military relationship with Britain. Oman's
moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good
relations with all Middle Eastern countries.

@Oman:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and
Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE

Geographic coordinates: 21 00 N, 57 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 212,460 sq km
land: 212,460 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 1,374 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble,
limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 95% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust
storms in interior; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: rising soil salinity; beach pollution
from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to
Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

@Oman:People

Population: 2,533,389
note: includes 527,078 non-nationals (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (male 531,137; female 511,051)
15-64 years: 57% (male 875,625; female 555,895)
65 years and over: 2% (male 31,400; female 28,281) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.46% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 38.08 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.16 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.58 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female
total population: 1.31 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.78 years
male: 69.66 years
female: 74 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani

Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri
Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu

Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: approaching 80%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Oman:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman

Data code: MU

Government type: monarchy

Capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: 6 regions (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah)
and 2 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) Ad Dakhiliyah,
Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*,
Zufar*; note - the US Embassy in Oman says that Masqat is a
governorate

Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National holiday: National Day, 18 November (1940)

Constitution: none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a
royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things,
clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars
ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the
government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic
civil liberties for Omani citizens

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: in Oman's most recent elections in 1997, limited to
approximately 50,000 Omanis chosen by the government to vote in
elections for the Majlis ash-Shura

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said
(since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state
and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said
(since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state
and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber
or Majlis ad-Dawla (41 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has
advisory powers only) and a lower chamber or Majlis ash-Shura (82
seats; members elected by limited suffrage, however, the monarch makes
final selections and can negate election results; body has some
limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory
powers)
elections: last held NA October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2000)
election results: NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, has non-Islamic judges; traditional
Islamic judges and a nascent civil court system, administered by
region

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Aqil al-DHAHAB
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 387-1980 through 1981, 1988
FAX: (202) 745-4933

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John B. CRAIG
embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: international: P. O. Box 202, Code No. 115, Medinat
Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: 698989
FAX: 699779

Flag description: three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of
equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the
national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two
crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the
vertical band

@Oman:Economy

Economy - overview: Oman's economic performance improved significantly
in 1999 due largely to the mid-year upturn in oil prices. The
government is moving ahead with privatization of its utilities, the
development of a body of commercial law to facilitate foreign
investment, and increased budgetary outlays. Oman continues to
liberalize its markets in an effort to accede to the World Trade
Organization (WTrO) and is likely to gain membership in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 40%
services: 57% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.07% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 850,000 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $3.9 billion
expenditures: $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 7.36 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 6.845 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables;
camels, cattle; fish

Exports: $7.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles

Exports - partners: Japan 21%, China 16%, Thailand 16%, South Korea
12%, US 3% (1997)

Imports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods, food, livestock, lubricants

Imports - partners: UAE 23% (largely reexports), Japan 16%, UK 13%, US
7.5%, Germany 5% (1997)

Debt - external: $4.8 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $76.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since
1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Oman:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 300,000 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 120,000 (1999)

Telephone system: modern system consisting of open wire, microwave,
and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable
domestic: open wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a
domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 1.4 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 1.6 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Oman:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 32,800 km
paved: 9,840 km (including 550 km of expressways)
unpaved: 22,960 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports and harbors: Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,306 GRT/8,210 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 142 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 136
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 56
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 35 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Oman:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Royal
Oman Police)

Military manpower - military age: 14 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 762,832 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 425,356 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 25,527 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.592 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 11.1% (FY99)

@Oman:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: northern boundary with the UAE has not been
bilaterally defined; northern section in the Musandam Peninsula is an
administrative boundary

______________________________________________________________________



PACIFIC OCEAN

@Pacific Ocean:Introduction

Background: A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic
Organization delimited a fifth world ocean from the southern portions
of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The new ocean
extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south
latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Pacific
Ocean remains the largest of the world's five oceans (followed by the
Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean).

@Pacific Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between the Southern Ocean, Asia, Australia,
and the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 160 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 155.557 million sq km
note: includes Bali Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Coral Sea, East
China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Tonkin, Java Sea,
Philippine Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, South China
Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: about 15 times the size of the US; covers about
28% of the global surface; larger than the total land area of the
world

Coastline: 135,663 km

Climate: planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns
exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and
westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal
fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico
from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America;
continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less
pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in
the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy
season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow
from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter
months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean;
tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from
May to December

Terrain: surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a
clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in
the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the
northern Pacific, sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk
in winter; in the southern Pacific, sea ice from Antarctica reaches
its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern
Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western
Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the Mariana Trench,
which is the world's deepest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench -10,924 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

Natural hazards: surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and
earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the "Pacific Ring of
Fire"; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east
Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to October);
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike
Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August
and September); cyclical El Nino phenomenon occurs off the coast of
Peru, when the trade winds slacken and the warm Equatorial
countercurrent moves south, killing the plankton that is the primary
food source for anchovies; consequently, the anchovies move to better
feeding grounds, causing resident marine birds to starve by the
thousands because of the loss of their food source; ships subject to
superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May; persistent
fog in the northern Pacific can be a maritime hazard from June to
December

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution
in Philippine Sea and South China Sea

Geography - note: the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait, Panama
Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the
Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific
Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in
the southwestern Pacific Ocean

@Pacific Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
Codes appendix

@Pacific Ocean:Economy

Economy - overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the
world economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly
touch. It provides low-cost sea transportation between East and West,
extensive fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and
sand and gravel for the construction industry. In 1996, over 60% of
the world's fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean. Exploitation of
offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an ever-increasing role in
the energy supplies of Australia, NZ, China, US, and Peru. The high
cost of recovering offshore oil and gas, combined with the wide swings
in world prices for oil since 1985, has slowed but not stopped new
drillings.

@Pacific Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Kao-hsiung (Taiwan),
Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San
Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney
(Australia), Vladivostok (Russia), Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

@Pacific Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

______________________________________________________________________



PAKISTAN

@Pakistan:Introduction

Background: The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim
state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu
India was never satisfactorily resolved. A third war between these
countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the
separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Kashmir is
ongoing. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan
conducted its own tests in 1998.

@Pakistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on
the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km,
Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in
north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 171,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially
in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July
and August)

Environment - current issues: water pollution from raw sewage,
industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh
water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to
potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional
invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

@Pakistan:People

Population: 141,553,775 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (male 29,880,574; female 28,145,247)
15-64 years: 55% (male 39,751,222; female 37,981,378)
65 years and over: 4% (male 2,856,305; female 2,939,049) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 32.11 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.51 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female



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