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Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Palau:Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; under a
Compact of Free Association between Palau and the US, the US military
is granted access to the islands for 50 years

@Palau:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



PALMYRA ATOLL

@Palmyra Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 5 52 N, 162 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 11.9 sq km
land: 11.9 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: very low

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 2 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 100%
other: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation,
coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

@Palmyra Atoll:People

Population: uninhabited (July 2000 est.)

@Palmyra Atoll:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Palmyra Atoll

Data code: LQ

Dependency status: incorporated territory of the US; privately owned,
but administered from Washington, DC by the Office of Insular Affairs,
US Department of the Interior

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Palmyra Atoll:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Palmyra Atoll:Transportation

Highways: much of the road and many causeways built during World War
II are unserviceable and overgrown

Ports and harbors: West Lagoon

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Palmyra Atoll:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Palmyra Atoll:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



PANAMA

@Panama:Introduction

Background: With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and
promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of
a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the
structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the
US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. On 7 September 1977,
an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from
the US to Panama by 1999. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing
responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the intervening
years. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The
entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US
military bases were turned over to Panama on 31 December 1999.

@Panama:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 78,200 sq km
land: 75,990 sq km
water: 2,210 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 555 km
border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season
(May to January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland
plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 44%
other: 27% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff
threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest;
land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming
land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal
that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific
Ocean

@Panama:People

Population: 2,808,268 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 439,590; female 422,949)
15-64 years: 63% (male 901,793; female 878,138)
65 years and over: 6% (male 79,330; female 86,468) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.34% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.53 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.95 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.47 years
male: 72.74 years
female: 78.31 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Panamanian(s)
adjective: Panamanian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian
and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%

Languages: Spanish (official), English 14%
note: many Panamanians bilingual

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.8%
male: 91.4%
female: 90.2% (1995 est.)

@Panama:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Panama
conventional short form: Panama
local long form: Republica de Panama
local short form: Panama

Data code: PM

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 2 territories* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui,
Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Ngobe-Bugle*, Panama, San
Blas*, and Veraguas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from
Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983 and in
1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1
September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1
September 1999); Second Vice President (Dominador) Kaiser Baldonero
BAZAN (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government
head of government: President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1
September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1
September 1999); Second Vice President (Dominador) Kaiser Baldonero
BAZAN (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 2 May 1999 (next
to be held NA May 2004)
election results: Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez elected president;
percent of vote - Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (PA) 44%, Martin
TORRIJOS (PRD) 37%
note: government coalition - PRD, PLN, and Popular Nationalist Party

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 2 May 1999 (next to be held May 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRD
35, PA 18, PS 4, PDC 4, MOLIRENA 3, PRC 2, PLN 2, Democratic Change 2,
MORENA 1; note - one seat had yet to be decided
note: legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a
plurality basis while districts located in more populous towns and
cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based
formula

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de
Justicia, nine judges appointed for 10-year terms; five superior
courts; three courts of appeal

Political parties and leaders: Arnulfista Party or PA [Mireya Elisa
MOSCOSO Rodriguez]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ruben
AROSEMENA]; Civic Renewal Party or PRC ;
Democratic Change ; Democratic Revolutionary Party
or PRD ; National Liberal Party or PLN [Dr. Roberto
ALEMAN Zubieta, Oscar UCROS, Raul ARANGO]; National Renovation
Movement or MORENA ; Nationalist Republican
Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA ; Solidarity Party or
PS

Political pressure groups and leaders: Chamber of Commerce; National
Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO;
National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; Panamanian
Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists
Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or
CTRP

International organization participation: CAN (associate), CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Guillermo FORD
chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 483-1407
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Simon FERRO
embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5
mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002
telephone: 227-1777
FAX: 227-1964

Flag description: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top
quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the
center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side)
and white with a red five-pointed star in the center

@Panama:Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its key geographic location, Panama's
economy is service-based, heavily weighted toward banking, commerce,
and tourism. The hand-over of the canal and military installations by
the US has given rise to new construction projects. The MOSCOSO
administration inherited an economy that is much more structurally
sound and liberalized than the one inherited by its predecessor. Even
though export demand is likely to remain slack in some key markets -
especially the Andean countries - GDP growth in 2000 probably will be
3% to 4%. Key reform initiatives from the previous administration -
including the privatization of public utilities - remain uncompleted.
Although President MOSCOSO is unlikely to overturn any previous
reforms, her populist leanings make it unlikely any new initiatives
will be undertaken in the near future. Indeed, the government has
failed to formulate a comprehensive economic policy framework, and the
only concrete step it has taken by yearend 1999 has been a hike in
agricultural tariffs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 25%
services: 67% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.5%
highest 10%: 42.5% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.044 million (1997 est.)
note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 18%, industry 18%, services
64% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.1% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.4 billion
expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $341
million (1997 est.)

Industries: construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and
other construction materials, sugar milling

Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.523 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 25.56%
hydro: 73.78%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.66% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 4.329 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 13 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 136 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane,
vegetables; livestock; shrimp

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee

Exports - partners: US 40%, Sweden, Costa Rica, Spain, Benelux,
Honduras (1998)

Imports: $6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer
goods, chemicals

Imports - partners: US 40%, Central America and Caribbean, Japan
(1998)

Debt - external: $7 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $197.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Panama:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 325,300 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic and international facilities well developed
domestic: NA
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave
System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 80, FM 44, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 815,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 9 (plus 17 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 510,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@Panama:Transportation

Railways:
total: 355 km
broad gauge: 76 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 279 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 11,258 km
paved: 3,783 km (including 30 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,475 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama
Canal

Pipelines: crude oil 130 km

Ports and harbors: Balboa, Cristobal, Coco Solo, Manzanillo (part of
Colon area), Vacamonte

Merchant marine:
total: 4,732 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 106,054,086
GRT/159,304,019 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1,377, cargo 976, chemical tanker 323, combination
bulk 68, combination ore/oil 15, container 525, liquified gas 184,
livestock carrier 8, multi-functional large load carrier 12, passenger
46, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 496, rail car carrier 2,
refrigerated cargo 313, roll-on/roll-off 106, short-sea passenger 42,
specialized tanker 33, vehicle carrier 202 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 71 countries
among which are Japan 1,262, Greece 378, Hong Kong 244, South Korea
259, Taiwan 229, China 193, Singapore 103, US 116, Switzerland 78, and
Indonesia 53 (1998 est.)

Airports: 105 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 41
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 21 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 64
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 49 (1999 est.)

@Panama:Military

Military branches: an amendment to the Constitution abolished the
armed forces, but there are security forces (Panamanian Public Forces
or PPF includes the National Police, National Maritime Service, and
National Air Service)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 761,568 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 521,487 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $132 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY97)

Military - note: on 10 February 1990, the government of then President
ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus
by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; in October 1994, Panama's
Legislative Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting
the creation of a standing military force, but allowing the temporary
establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external
aggression"

@Panama:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and major
drug-money-laundering center; no recent signs of coca cultivation;
monitoring of financial transactions is improving, yet Panama has
failed to prosecute anyone for money laundering - official corruption
remains a major problem

______________________________________________________________________



PAPUA NEW GUINEA

@Papua New Guinea:Introduction

Background: The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second
largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK
(south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902,
which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued
to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A
nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in
1997, after claiming some 20,000 lives.

@Papua New Guinea:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern
half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South
Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 147 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 820 km
border countries: Indonesia 820 km

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil,
fisheries

Land use:
arable land: 0.1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 92.9%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Rim of
Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe
earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as
a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution
from mining projects; severe drought

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of
world's largest swamps along southwest coast

@Papua New Guinea:People

Population: 4,926,984 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 972,289; female 940,049)
15-64 years: 58% (male 1,470,158; female 1,365,523)
65 years and over: 3% (male 84,942; female 94,023) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.47% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 32.68 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.1 years
male: 61.05 years
female: 65.26 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.38 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean

Ethnic groups: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%,
Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%,
Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant
10%, indigenous beliefs 34%

Languages: English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu
spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.2%
male: 81%
female: 62.7% (1995 est.)

@Papua New Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG

Data code: PP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu,
Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang,
Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern,
Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New
Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Silas ATOPARE (since 13 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA (since NA August
1999); Deputy Prime Minister Mao ZEMING (since NA December 1999)
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general
on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the National Executive Council; prime minister and deputy prime
minister appointed by the governor general for up to five years on the
basis of majority support in National Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament - sometimes
referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats, 89 elected from open
electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14-28 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - PPP 15%, Pangu Pati 14%,
NA 14%, PDM 8%, PNC 6%, PAP 5%, UP 3%, NP 1%, PUP 1%, independents
33%; seats by party - PPP 16, Pangu Pati 15, NA 15, PDM 9, PNC 7, PAP
5, UP 3, NP 1, PUP 1, independents 37; note - association with
political parties is very fluid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council
after consultation with the minister responsible for justice, other
judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission

Political parties and leaders: Black Action Party ;
Bougainville Unity Alliance or BUA ; Christian
Democratic Party ; Hausman Party ; League for
National Advancement or LNA ; Liberal Party ;
Melanesian Alliance or MA ; Melanesian Labor Party
; Milne Bay Party ; Movement for Greater
Autonomy ; National Alliance or NA ;
National Party or NP ; Papua New Guinea First Party



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