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Exports - commodities: electronic equipment, machinery and transport
equipment, garments, coconut products

Exports - partners: US 34%, EU 20%, Japan 14%, Netherlands 8%,
Singapore 6%, UK 6%, Hong Kong 4% (1998)

Imports: $30.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: raw materials and intermediate goods, capital
goods, consumer goods, fuels

Imports - partners: US 22%, Japan 20%, South Korea 8%, Singapore 6%,
Taiwan 5%, Hong Kong 4% (1998 est.)

Debt - external: $51.9 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $1.1 billion (1998)

Currency: 1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 40.427 (January 2000),
39.089 (1999), 40.893 (1998), 29.471 (1997), 26.216 (1996), 25.714

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 1.9 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.959 million (1998)

Telephone system: good international radiotelephone and submarine
cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations
international: 9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to
Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan

Radio broadcast stations: AM 366, FM 290, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 11.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 31 (1997)

Televisions: 3.7 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 93 (1999)


total: 492 km (an additional 405 km are not in operation)
narrow gauge: 492 km 1.067-m gauge (1996)

total: 199,950 km
paved: 39,590 km
unpaved: 160,360 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m)

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Ports and harbors: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras
Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa,
San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga

Merchant marine:
total: 480 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,973,024 GRT/9,025,087
ships by type: bulk 159, cargo 122, chemical tanker 5, combination
bulk 9, container 7, liquified gas 13, livestock carrier 9, passenger
4, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 47, refrigerated cargo 20,
roll-on/roll-off 19, short-sea passenger 32, specialized tanker 2,
vehicle carrier 20 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; Japan owns 19 ships, Hong Kong
5, Cyprus 1, Denmark 1, Greece 1, Netherlands 1, Singapore 1, and UK 1
(1998 est.)

Airports: 266 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 76
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 190
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 121 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps),
Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 20,731,979 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 14,607,014 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 835,817 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $995 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY98)

@Philippines:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in a complex dispute over the
Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; claim to Malaysia's Sabah State has not been fully revoked

Illicit drugs: exports locally produced marijuana and hashish to East
Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for
heroin and crystal methamphetamine



@Pitcairn Islands:Introduction

Background: Pitcairn Island was discovered in 1767 by the British and
settled in 1790 by the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.
Outmigration, primarily to New Zealand, has thinned the population
from a peak of 233 in 1937 to about 50 today.

@Pitcairn Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Peru to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 25 04 S, 130 06 W

Map references: Oceania

total: 47 sq km
land: 47 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical, hot, humid; modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pawala Valley Ridge 347 m

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish
note: manganese, iron, copper, gold, silver, and zinc have been
discovered offshore

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially November to March)

Environment - current issues: deforestation (only a small portion of
the original forest remains because of burning and clearing for

@Pitcairn Islands:People

Population: 54 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -2.06% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

noun: Pitcairn Islander(s)
adjective: Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian

Religions: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

Languages: English (official), Pitcairnese, Tahitian, 18th century
English dialect

@Pitcairn Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
conventional short form: Pitcairn Islands

Data code: PC

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal with three years residency

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor
(nonresident) of the Pitcairn Islands Martin WILLIAMS (since NA May
1998); Commissioner (nonresident) Leon SALT (since NA; is the liaison
person between the governor and the Island Council)
head of government: Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Jay WARREN (since NA)
cabinet: NA
elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner and
commissioner appointed by the monarch; island magistrate elected by
popular vote for a three-year term; last known election held NA
December 1993 (next was to be held NA December 1996)
election results: Jay WARREN reelected island magistrate; percent of
vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council (10 seats - 6 elected by
popular vote, 1 appointed by the 6 elected members, 2 appointed by the
governor, and 1 seat for the Island Secretary; members serve one-year
elections: take place each December; last held NA December 1999 (next
to be held NA December 2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - all independents

Judicial branch: Island Court, island magistrate presides over the
court and is elected every three years

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue
with a shield featuring a yellow anchor

@Pitcairn Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: The inhabitants of this tiny economy exist on
fishing, subsistence farming, handicrafts, and postage stamps. The
fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and
vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams,
and beans. Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major
sources of revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and
the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 12 able-bodied men (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: no business community in the usual sense;
some public works; subsistence farming and fishing

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $729,884
expenditures: $878,119, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95

Industries: postage stamps, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: wide variety of fruits and vegetables

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: fruits, vegetables, curios, stamps

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour,
sugar, other foodstuffs

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9451 (January
2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8629 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996),
1.5235 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Pitcairn Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1 (there are 17 telephones on one
party line) (1997)

Telephone system: party line telephone service on the island
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Pitcairn Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

total: 6.4 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved: 6.4 km

Ports and harbors: Bounty Bay

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: none

@Pitcairn Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Pitcairn Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none




Background: Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun
by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet
satellite country following the war, but one that was comparatively
tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation
of an independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a
political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the
presidency. Complete freedom came with the implosion of the USSR in
1991. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the
country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in
Central Europe, boosting hopes for early acceptance to the EU. Poland
joined the NATO alliance in 1999.


Location: Central Europe, east of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

total: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,465 sq km
water: 8,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,888 km
border countries: Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456
km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444
km, Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with
frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead,
salt, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 47%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 29%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: situation has improved since 1989 due to
decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by
postcommunist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious
because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and
the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from
industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of
hazardous wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat
terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain


Population: 38,646,023 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 3,767,454; female 3,587,822)
15-64 years: 69% (male 13,201,825; female 13,352,950)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,809,839; female 2,926,133) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.04% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.13 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.99 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.19 years
male: 69.01 years
female: 77.6 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian
0.5% (1990 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern
Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Languages: Polish

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1978 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska

Data code: PL

Government type: republic

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular -
wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie, Lubelskie,
Lubuskie, Malopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie,
Pomorskie, Slaskie, Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie,
Wielkopolskie, Zachodniopomorskie

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791); Independence Day,
November 11 (1918)

Constitution: 16 October 1997; adopted by the National Assembly on 2
April 1997; passed by national referendum 23 May 1997

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and
holdover communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as
part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of
legislative acts although under the new constitution, the
Constitutional Tribunal ruling will become final as of October 1999;
court decisions can be appealed to the European Court of Justice in

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 December
head of government: Prime Minister Jerzy BUZEK (since 31 October
1997), Deputy Prime Ministers Leszek BALCEROWICZ (since 31 October
1997), Longin KOMOLOWSKI (since 19 October 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and
the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the
Sejm approves the Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election first round held 5 November 1995, second round held 19
November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000); prime minister and
deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the
election results: Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI elected president; percent of
popular vote, second round - Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI 51.7%, Lech WALESA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Zgromadzenie
Narodowe consists of the Sejm (460 seats; members are elected under a
complex system of proportional representation to serve four-year
terms) and the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members are elected by a
majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: Sejm elections last held 21 September 1997 (next to be held
by NA September 2001); Senate - last held 21 September 1997 (next to
be held by NA September 2001)
election results: Sejm - percent of vote by party - RS-AWS 33.8%, SLD
27.1%, UW 13.4%, PSL 7.3%, ROP 5.6%, MNSO 0.4%, other 12.4%; seats by
party - AWS 201, SLD 164, UW 60, PSL 27, ROP 6, MNSO 2; Senate -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AWS 51, SLD 28, UW 8,
ROP 5, PSL 3, independents 5; note - seats by party in the Sejm as of
January 2000: AWS 186, SLD 159, UW 60, PSL 26, PP 7, ROP 4, MNSO 2,
KPN-O 5, PPS-RLP 3, other 8
note: two seats are assigned to ethnic minority parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president
on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an
indefinite period; Constitutional Tribunal, judges are chosen by the
Sejm for nine-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Center Alliance Party or PC [Antoni
TOKARCZUK]; Christian National Union or ZCHN ;
Confederation for an Independent Poland or KPN ;
Confederation for an Independent Poland-Patriotic Camp or KPN-OP
(KPN-Fatherland or KPN-O is a small group within the KPN-OP) [Adam
SLOMKA]; Conservative Peasant Party or SKL ;
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD (Social Democracy of Poland) [Leszek
MILLER]; Freedom Union or UW ; German Minority of
Lower Silesia or MNSO ; Labor Party or PP ;
Labor Union or UP ; Movement of Polish Working People or
RLP ; Movement for the Reconstruction of Poland or ROP [Jan
OLSZEWSKI]; Polish Christian Democrats or PPChD ;
Polish Peasant Party or PSL ; Polish Socialist
Party or PPS ; Realpolitik Union or UPR [Janusz
KORWIN-MIKKE]; Solidarity Electoral Action or AWS (includes RS-AWS and
Solidarity) ; Social Movement-Solidarity Electoral
Action or RS-AWS
note: post-Communist - SLD and PSL; post-Solidarity - UW, Freedom
Union, ZCHN, PC, PL, RS AWS, UP, and PK; non-Communist, non-Solidarity
- ROP, KPN, MN, and UPR

Political pressure groups and leaders: All Poland Trade Union Alliance
or OPZZ (trade union); Roman Catholic Church; Solidarity (trade union)

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC
(observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant),
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,
(associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX: (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel FRIED
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-054, Warsaw P1
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: (22) 628-30-41
FAX: (22) 625-67-31
consulate(s) general: Krakow

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and


Economy - overview: Poland today stands out as one of the most
successful and open transition economies. The privatization of small
and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new
firms marked the rapid development of a private sector now responsible
for 70% of economic activity. In contrast to the vibrant expansion of
private non-farm activity, the large agriculture component remains
handicapped by structural problems, surplus labor, inefficient small
farms, and lack of investment. The government's determination to enter
the EU as soon as possible affects most aspects of its economic
policies. Improving Poland's worsening current account deficit and
tightening monetary policy, now focused on inflation targeting, also
are priorities. Warsaw continues to hold the budget deficit to around
2% of GDP. Structural reforms advanced in pensions, health care, and
public administration in 1999, but resulted in larger than anticipated
fiscal pressures. Further progress on public finance depends mainly on
privatization of Poland's remaining state sector. Restructuring and
privatization of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal and steel) has begun,
but work remains to be done. Growth in 2000 should be moderately above

GDP: purchasing power parity - $276.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 35%
services: 60% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 23.8% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 22.1% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 15.3 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 25%, agriculture 25%, services
50% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

revenues: $31.6 billion
expenditures: $34.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals,
shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 134.879 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 96.47%
hydro: 3.18%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.35% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 121.938 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 8.1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 4.6 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry,
eggs, pork, beef, milk, cheese

Exports: $27.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: manufactured goods and chemicals 57%, machinery
and equipment 21%, food and live animals 12%, mineral fuels 7% (1997)

Exports - partners: Germany 36%, Italy 5.8%, Russia 5.6%, Netherlands
4.7%, France 4.6%, Ukraine 3.8%, UK 3.8 (1998)

Imports: $40.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods and chemicals 43%, machinery
and equipment 36%, mineral fuels 9%, food and live animals 8% (1997)

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 87 of 140)