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Imports - partners: Germany 25.8%, Italy 9.4%, France 6.5%, Russia
5.1%, UK 4.9%, US 3.8%, Netherlands 3.8% (1998)

Debt - external: $44 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $4.312 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 4.1696 (December 1999), 3.9671
(1999), 3.4754 (1998), 3.2793 (1997), 2.6961 (1996), 2.4250 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Poland:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8.07 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.58 million (1998)

Telephone system: underdeveloped and outmoded system; government aims
to have 10 million telephones in service by 2000; the process of
partial privatization of the state-owned telephone monopoly has begun
domestic: cable, open wire, and microwave radio relay; 3 cellular
networks; local exchanges 56.6% digital
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, 2
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), and 1 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 777, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 20.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 150 (1997)

Televisions: 13.05 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 161 (1999)

@Poland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 23,420 km
broad gauge: 646 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 21,639 km 1.435-m gauge (11,626 km electrified; 8,978
km double track)
narrow gauge: 1,135 km various gauges including 1.000-m, 0.785-m,
0.750-m, and 0.600-m (1998)

Highways:
total: 381,046 km
paved: 249,966 km (including 268 km of expressways)
unpaved: 131,080 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 3,812 km navigable rivers and canals (1996)

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 2,280 km; natural gas
17,000 km (1996)

Ports and harbors: Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Kolobrzeg, Szczecin,
Swinoujscie, Ustka, Warsaw, Wroclaw

Merchant marine:
total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,120,165 GRT/1,799,569
DWT
ships by type: bulk 50, cargo 2, chemical tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off
1, short-sea passenger 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 123 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 85
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 42
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 38
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 20 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1999 est.)

@Poland:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,454,717 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 8,138,723 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 336,293 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.2 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY00)

@Poland:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of amphetamines for the
international market; minor transshipment point for Asian and Latin
American illicit drugs to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



PORTUGAL

@Portugal:Introduction

Background: Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and
16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the
destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the
Napoleonic Wars, and the loss of its Brazilian colony in 1822. A 1910
revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades
repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military
coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year Portugal
granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered
the EC in 1985.

@Portugal:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier
in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in
the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium
ore, marble, arable land, hydro power

Land use:
arable land: 26%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 36%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by
industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in
coastal areas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic
locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Portugal:People

Population: 10,048,232 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 880,501; female 834,062)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,319,143; female 3,468,009)
65 years and over: 15% (male 628,101; female 918,416) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.18% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 11.49 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.75 years
male: 72.24 years
female: 79.49 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black
African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization
number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)

Languages: Portuguese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Portugal:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal

Data code: PO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular -
distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular -
regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca,
Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa,
Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila
Real, Viseu

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 5
November 1992, and 3 September 1997

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews
the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES
(since 28 October 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative
body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 14 January 1996 (next to be held NA January 2001);
following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or
leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by
the president
election results: Jorge SAMPAIO elected president; percent of vote -
Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 53.8%, Anibal CAVACO SILVA (Social Democrat)
46.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia
da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 October 1999 (next to be held by NA October
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - PSP 43.9%, PSD 32.3%, CDU
9%, PP 8.3%, The Left Bloc 2.4%; seats by party - PSP 113, PSD 83, CDU
17, PP 15, The Left Bloc 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica, judges
appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political parties and leaders: Popular Party or PP ;
Portuguese Communist Part/United Democratic Coalition or PCP/CDU
; Portuguese Socialist Party or PSP [Antonio
GUTERRES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD ;
The Left Bloc

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BIS,
CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA
(observer), MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK,
UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joao Alberto Bacelar DA ROCKA PARIS
chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 328-8610
FAX: (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San
Francisco
consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence
(Rhode Island)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald S. MCGOWAN
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: (21) 727-3300
FAX: (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths)
and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on
the dividing line

@Portugal:Economy

Economy - overview: Portugal is an upcoming capitalist economy with a
per capita GDP two-thirds that of the four big West European
economies. In 1999, it continued to enjoy sturdy economic growth,
falling interest rates, and low unemployment. The country qualified
for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and joined with 10 other
European countries in launching the euro on 1 January 1999. Portugal's
inflation rate for 1999, 2.4%, was comfortably low. The country
continues to run a trade deficit and a balance of payments deficit.
The government is working to modernize capital plant and increase the
country's competitiveness in the increasingly integrated world
markets. Growth is expected to remain stable in 2000 as the economic
integration of Europe proceeds. Improvement in the education sector is
critical to the catch-up process.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $151.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 36%
services: 60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.75 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 30%, agriculture
10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.6% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $48 billion
expenditures: $52 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.4
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 38.581 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 63.14%
hydro: 33.46%
nuclear: 0%
other: 3.4% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 36.18 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 3.7 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 4 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep,
cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports: $25 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals,
cork and paper products, hides

Exports - partners: EU 82% (Germany 20%, Spain 16%, France 14%, UK 12%
Netherlands 5%, Benelux 5%, Italy), US 5% (1998)

Imports: $34.9 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum, textiles, agricultural products

Imports - partners: EU 77% (Spain 24%, Germany 15%, France 11%, Italy
8%, UK 7%, Netherlands 5%), US, Japan (1998)

Debt - external: $13.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $271 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 172.78 (January 1999), 180.10
(1998), 175.31 (1997), 154.24 (1996), 151.11 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 200.482 escudos per euro; the euro will replace the
local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Portugal:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.724 million (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 887,216 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables,
open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth
stations
international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat;
tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat
(Atlantic Ocean region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations: AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters),
shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 36 (plus 62 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20 (1999)

@Portugal:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,850 km
broad gauge: 2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km electrified; 426 km double
track)
narrow gauge: 274 km 1.000-m gauge (1998)

Highways:
total: 68,732 km
paved: 59,110 km (including 797 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,622 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national
economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton or less
cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km; natural gas 700
km
note: the secondary lines for the natural gas pipeline that will be
300 km long have not yet been built

Ports and harbors: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores),
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria
(Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine:
total: 151 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,061,202 GRT/1,601,267
DWT
ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 80, chemical tanker 14, container 8,
liquified gas 8, multi-functional large load carrier 1, petroleum
tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 6, short-sea
passenger 5, vehicle carrier 5 (1999 est.)
note: Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira for
Portuguese-owned ships; ships on the Madeira Register (MAR) will have
taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience (1998 est.)

Airports: 66 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 25 (1999 est.)

@Portugal:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National
Republican Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,534,872 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,036,712 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 74,050 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.458 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY97)

@Portugal:Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine
entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from
North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

______________________________________________________________________



PUERTO RICO

@Puerto Rico:Introduction

Background: Discovered by Columbus in 1493, the island was ceded by
Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. A
popularly elected governor has served since 1948. In plebiscites held
in 1967 and 1993, voters chose to retain commonwealth status.

@Puerto Rico:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 9,104 sq km
land: 8,959 sq km
water: 145 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode
Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains, with coastal plain belt in north; mountains
precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal
areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m

Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and
offshore oil

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 26%
forests and woodland: 16%
other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; hurricanes

Environment - current issues: erosion; occasional drought causing
water shortages

Geography - note: important location along the Mona Passage - a key
shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and
best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high
central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively
dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north

@Puerto Rico:People

Population: 3,915,798 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 480,100; female 457,684)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,234,065; female 1,336,848)
65 years and over: 10% (male 174,383; female 232,718) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.56% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 15.47 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.55 years
male: 71.05 years
female: 80.3 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups: NA

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%

Languages: Spanish, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

@Puerto Rico:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form: Puerto Rico

Data code: RQ

Dependency status: commonwealth associated with the US

Government type: commonwealth

Capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular -
municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas
Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas,
Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey,
Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado,
Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo,
Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos,
Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati,
Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito,
Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande,
Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San
Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado,
Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July
1952; effective 25 July 1952

Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since 2 January 1993)
cabinet: NA
elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket
for four-year terms; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year
term; election last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November
2000)
election results: Pedro ROSSELLO reelected governor; percent of vote -
51.1%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the
Senate (28 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (54 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 7
November 2000); House of Representatives - last held 5 November 1996
(next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PNP 19, PPD 8, PIP 1; House of Representatives - percent of
vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNP 37, PPD 16, PIP 1
note: Puerto Rico elects one nonvoting representative to the US House
of Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be
held 7 November 2000); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - PNP 1 (Carlos Romero BARCELO)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices appointed by the governor
with the consent of the Senate; Superior Courts, justices appointed by
the governor with the consent of the Senate; Municipal Courts,
justices appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party [William
MIRANDA]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico ; New
Progressive Party or PNP ; Popular Democratic Party or
PPD ; Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP
Political pressure groups and leaders: Armed Forces for National
Liberation or FALN; Armed Forces of Popular Resistance; Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Volunteers of the Puerto
Rican Revolution

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCL,
WFTU, WHO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (commonwealth associated
with the US)



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