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Diplomatic representation from the US: none (commonwealth associated
with the US)

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist
side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center; design
based on the US flag

@Puerto Rico:Economy

Economy - overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies
in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has surpassed
agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income.
Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US
firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum
wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and
other livestock products as the main source of income in the
agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important
source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of nearly 5
million tourists in 1999. Prospects for 2000 are good, assuming
continued strength in the tourism and construction sectors and
continuation of the US boom.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $38.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 45%
services: 54% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.3 million (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 3%, industry 20%, services
77% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13% (FY97/98 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $6.7 billion
expenditures: $9.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY99/00)

Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products;
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 17.765 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 98.06%
hydro: 1.94%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 16.521 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains,
bananas; livestock products, chickens

Exports: $34.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned
tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment

Exports - partners: US 88% (1999)

Imports: $25.3 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing,
food, fish, petroleum products

Imports - partners: US 60% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Puerto Rico:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.196 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 171,000 (1995)

Telephone system: modern system, integrated with that of the US by
high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data
capability
domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable
to US

Radio broadcast stations: AM 72, FM 17, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2.7 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (plus three stations of the US Armed
Forces Radio and Television Service) (1997)

Televisions: 1.021 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 18 (1999)

@Puerto Rico:Transportation

Railways:
total: 96 km
narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge, rural, narrow-gauge system for
hauling sugarcane; no passenger service

Highways:
total: 14,400 km
paved: 14,400 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San
Juan

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,513 GRT/14,976 DWT
ships by type: roll-on/roll-off 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 30 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 7 (1999 est.)

@Puerto Rico:Military

Military branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@Puerto Rico:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



QATAR

@Qatar:Introduction

Background: During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy
was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by
the amir who had ruled the country since 1972. He was overthrown in a
bloodless coup by his own son in 1995. Oil and natural gas revenues
enable Qatar to have a per capita income not far below the leading
industrial countries of Western Europe.

@Qatar:Geography

Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 11,437 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
total: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements, or the
median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and
gravel

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 94% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 80 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near
major petroleum deposits

@Qatar:People

Population: 744,483 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 99,702; female 95,960)
15-64 years: 71% (male 378,741; female 152,978)
65 years and over: 3% (male 12,120; female 4,982) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.35% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.07 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.19 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.48 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.43 male(s)/female
total population: 1.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.37 years
male: 69.92 years
female: 74.94 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other
14%

Religions: Muslim 95%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second
language

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.4%
male: 79.2%
female: 79.9% (1995 est.)

@Qatar:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between
cutter and gutter, but not like guitar

Data code: QA

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al
Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Salal

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant
in personal matters

Suffrage: suffrage is limited to municipal elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995
when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al
Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa
Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected crown prince by the
monarch 22 October 1996); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions
of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani,
brother of the monarch (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister
MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20
January 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; note - in March 1999 Qatar
held elections for representatives to its Central Municipal Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35
seats; members appointed)
note: the constitution calls for elections for part of this
consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when
there were partial elections to the body; Council members have their
terms extended every four years since

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO
(pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Saad Muhammad al-KUBAYSI
chancery: 4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: (202) 274-1600
consulate(s) general: Houston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth MCKUNE
embassy: 22 February Road, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: 884 101
FAX: 884 150
note: work week is Saturday-Wednesday

Flag description: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white
points) on the hoist side

@Qatar:Economy

Economy - overview: Oil accounts for more than 30% of GDP, roughly 80%
of export earnings, and 66% of government revenues. Proved oil
reserves of 3.7 billion barrels should ensure continued output at
current levels for 23 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP
three-fourths that of the leading West European industrial countries.
Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 7 trillion cubic meters,
more than 5% of the world total, third largest in the world.
Production and export of natural gas are becoming increasingly
important. Long-term goals feature the development of off-shore
petroleum and the diversification of the economy. If high oil prices
continue in 2000, Qatar will post its highest ever trade surplus - of
more than $4 billion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 49%
services: 50% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999)

Labor force: 233,000 (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5 billion
expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY99/00 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 6.715 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 6.245 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products,
beef; fish

Exports: $6.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products 80%, fertilizers, steel

Exports - partners: Japan 50%, Singapore 12%, South Korea 9%, US, UAE
(1997)

Imports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, food,
chemicals

Imports - partners: UK 25%, France 13%, Japan 10%, US 9%, Italy 6%
(1997)

Debt - external: $10 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed
rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Qatar:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 146,980 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 18,469 (1995)

Telephone system: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: NA
international: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay
to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite
earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and
1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 256,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 230,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Qatar:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,230 km
paved: 1,107 km
unpaved: 123 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km

Ports and harbors: Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id

Merchant marine:
total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 721,756 GRT/1,132,510 DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 7, petroleum
tanker 5 (1999 est.)

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Qatar:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 306,850
note: includes non-nationals (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 160,899 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 6,471 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $816 million (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8.1% (FY99/00)

@Qatar:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the territorial dispute with Bahrain over
the Hawar Islands and the maritime boundary dispute with Bahrain are
currently before the International Court of Justice (ICJ); June 1999
agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the
border with Saudi Arabia

______________________________________________________________________



REUNION

@Reunion:Introduction

Background: The Portuguese discovered the uninhabited island in 1513.
From the 17th to the 19th centuries, French immigration supplemented
by influxes of Africans, Chinese, Malays, and Malabar Indians gave the
island its ethnic mix. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cost the
island its importance as a stopover on the East Indies trade route.

@Reunion:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 2,512 sq km
land: 2,502 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 207 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and
dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Piton des Neiges 3,069 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic, devastating cyclones (December to April);
Piton de la Fournaise on the southeastern coast is an active volcano

Environment - current issues: NA

@Reunion:People

Population: 720,934 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 119,291; female 113,741)
15-64 years: 62% (male 220,066; female 227,632)
65 years and over: 6% (male 16,336; female 23,868) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.84 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.68 years
male: 69.28 years
female: 76.24 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.61 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Reunionese (singular and plural)
adjective: Reunionese

Ethnic groups: French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian

Religions: Roman Catholic 86%, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist (1995)

Languages: French (official), Creole widely used

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79%
male: 76%
female: 80% (1982 est.)

@Reunion:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Reunion
conventional short form: Reunion
local long form: none
local short form: Ile de la Reunion

Data code: RE

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are four arrondissements, 24 communes, and 47
cantons

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Robert POMMIES (since NA 1996)
head of government: President of the General Council Jean-Luc POUDROUX
(since NA March 1998) and President of the Regional Council Paul
VERGES (since NA March 1993)
cabinet: NA
elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year
term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the
French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the General and
Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (47 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote to serve six-year terms) and unicameral
Regional Council (45 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote
to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council - last held NA March 1994 (next to be held
NA 2000); Regional Council - last held 15 March 1998 (next to be held
NA 2004)
election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PCR 12, PS 12, UDF 11, RPR 5, others 7; Regional
Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCR 7, UDF
8, PS 6, RPR 4, various right-wing candidates 15, various left-wing
candidates 5
note: Reunion elects three representatives to the French Senate;
elections last held 14 April 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1, PCR 2; Reunion
also elects five deputies to the French National Assembly; elections
last held 25 May and 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCR 3, PS 1, and
RPR-UDF 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Reunion or PCR [Paul
VERGES]; France-Reunion Future or FRA ; Mouvement
des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG ; National Front or FN
; Rally for the Republic or RPR ;
Socialist Party or PS ; Union for France or UPF
(includes RPR and UDF) ; Union for French Democracy or UDF
International organization participation: FZ, InOC, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Reunion:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy has traditionally been based on
agriculture. Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a
century, and in some years it accounts for 85% of exports. The
government has been pushing the development of a tourist industry to
relieve high unemployment, which amounts to more than 40% of the labor
force. The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is
extraordinary and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The
white and Indian communities are substantially better off than other
segments of the population, often approaching European standards,
whereas minority groups suffer the poverty and unemployment typical of
the poorer nations of the African continent. The outbreak of severe
rioting in February 1991 illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic
tensions. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on
continued financial assistance from France.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,800 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 261,000 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 8%, industry 19%, services
73% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 42.8% (1998)

Budget:
revenues: $1.2 billion
expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $260
million (1995)

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, handicraft items, flower oil
extraction

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.11 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 54.05%
hydro: 45.95%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.032 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco, tropical fruits,
vegetables, corn

Exports: $214.162 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: sugar 63%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume
essences 2%, lobster 3%, (1993)

Exports - partners: France 74%, Japan 6%, Comoros 4% (1994)

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco,
machinery and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum
products

Imports - partners: France 64%, Bahrain 3%, Germany 3%, Italy 3%
(1994)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - substantial annual subsidies
from France

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Reunion:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 236,500 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 42,000 (1998)

Telephone system: adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis
domestic: modern open wire and microwave radio relay network
international: radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France,
Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station
- 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 55, shortwave 0 (1998)



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